Zoonotic pathogens isolated from wild animals and environmental samples at two California wildlife hospitals

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Abstract

Objective-To determine types and estimate prevalence of potentially zoonotic enteric pathogens shed by wild animals admitted to either of 2 wildlife hospitals and to characterize distribution of these pathogens and of aerobic bacteria in a hospital environment. Design-Cross-sectional study. Sample-Fecal samples from 338 animals in 2 wildlife hospitals and environmental samples from 1 wildlife hospital. Procedures-Fecal samples were collected within 24 hours of hospital admission. Environmental samples were collected from air and surfaces. Samples were tested for zoonotic pathogens via culture techniques and biochemical analyses. Prevalence of pathogen shedding was compared among species groups, ages, sexes, and seasons. Bacterial counts were determined for environmental samples. Results-Campylobacter spp, Vibrio spp, Salmonella spp, Giardia spp, and Cryptosporidium spp (alone or in combination) were detected in 105 of 338 (31%) fecal samples. Campylobacter spp were isolated only from birds. Juvenile passerines were more likely to shed Campylobacter spp than were adults; prevalence increased among juvenile passerines during summer. Non-O1 serotypes of Vibrio cholerae were isolated from birds; during an oil-spill response, 9 of 10 seabirds screened were shedding this pathogen, which was also detected in environmental samples. Salmonella spp and Giardia spp were isolated from birds and mammals; Cryptosporidium spp were isolated from mammals only. Floors of animal rooms had higher bacterial counts than did floors with only human traffic. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Potentially zoonotic enteric pathogens were identified in samples from several species admitted to wildlife hospitals, indicating potential for transmission if prevention is not practiced.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)773-783
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Volume238
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 15 2011

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Wild Animals
Zoonoses
wild animals
wildlife
Campylobacter
pathogens
Birds
Giardia
Cryptosporidium
Bacterial Load
sampling
Salmonella
Mammals
Vibrio cholerae non-O1
Petroleum Pollution
Culture Techniques
Aerobic Bacteria
Vibrio
plate count
birds

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

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title = "Zoonotic pathogens isolated from wild animals and environmental samples at two California wildlife hospitals",
abstract = "Objective-To determine types and estimate prevalence of potentially zoonotic enteric pathogens shed by wild animals admitted to either of 2 wildlife hospitals and to characterize distribution of these pathogens and of aerobic bacteria in a hospital environment. Design-Cross-sectional study. Sample-Fecal samples from 338 animals in 2 wildlife hospitals and environmental samples from 1 wildlife hospital. Procedures-Fecal samples were collected within 24 hours of hospital admission. Environmental samples were collected from air and surfaces. Samples were tested for zoonotic pathogens via culture techniques and biochemical analyses. Prevalence of pathogen shedding was compared among species groups, ages, sexes, and seasons. Bacterial counts were determined for environmental samples. Results-Campylobacter spp, Vibrio spp, Salmonella spp, Giardia spp, and Cryptosporidium spp (alone or in combination) were detected in 105 of 338 (31{\%}) fecal samples. Campylobacter spp were isolated only from birds. Juvenile passerines were more likely to shed Campylobacter spp than were adults; prevalence increased among juvenile passerines during summer. Non-O1 serotypes of Vibrio cholerae were isolated from birds; during an oil-spill response, 9 of 10 seabirds screened were shedding this pathogen, which was also detected in environmental samples. Salmonella spp and Giardia spp were isolated from birds and mammals; Cryptosporidium spp were isolated from mammals only. Floors of animal rooms had higher bacterial counts than did floors with only human traffic. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Potentially zoonotic enteric pathogens were identified in samples from several species admitted to wildlife hospitals, indicating potential for transmission if prevention is not practiced.",
author = "Siembieda, {Jennifer L.} and Miller, {Woutrina A.} and Byrne, {Barbara A.} and Ziccardi, {Michael H.} and Nancy Anderson and Nadira Chouicha and Sandrock, {Christian E.} and Johnson, {Christine K.}",
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doi = "10.2460/javma.238.6.773",
language = "English (US)",
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T1 - Zoonotic pathogens isolated from wild animals and environmental samples at two California wildlife hospitals

AU - Siembieda, Jennifer L.

AU - Miller, Woutrina A.

AU - Byrne, Barbara A.

AU - Ziccardi, Michael H.

AU - Anderson, Nancy

AU - Chouicha, Nadira

AU - Sandrock, Christian E.

AU - Johnson, Christine K.

PY - 2011/3/15

Y1 - 2011/3/15

N2 - Objective-To determine types and estimate prevalence of potentially zoonotic enteric pathogens shed by wild animals admitted to either of 2 wildlife hospitals and to characterize distribution of these pathogens and of aerobic bacteria in a hospital environment. Design-Cross-sectional study. Sample-Fecal samples from 338 animals in 2 wildlife hospitals and environmental samples from 1 wildlife hospital. Procedures-Fecal samples were collected within 24 hours of hospital admission. Environmental samples were collected from air and surfaces. Samples were tested for zoonotic pathogens via culture techniques and biochemical analyses. Prevalence of pathogen shedding was compared among species groups, ages, sexes, and seasons. Bacterial counts were determined for environmental samples. Results-Campylobacter spp, Vibrio spp, Salmonella spp, Giardia spp, and Cryptosporidium spp (alone or in combination) were detected in 105 of 338 (31%) fecal samples. Campylobacter spp were isolated only from birds. Juvenile passerines were more likely to shed Campylobacter spp than were adults; prevalence increased among juvenile passerines during summer. Non-O1 serotypes of Vibrio cholerae were isolated from birds; during an oil-spill response, 9 of 10 seabirds screened were shedding this pathogen, which was also detected in environmental samples. Salmonella spp and Giardia spp were isolated from birds and mammals; Cryptosporidium spp were isolated from mammals only. Floors of animal rooms had higher bacterial counts than did floors with only human traffic. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Potentially zoonotic enteric pathogens were identified in samples from several species admitted to wildlife hospitals, indicating potential for transmission if prevention is not practiced.

AB - Objective-To determine types and estimate prevalence of potentially zoonotic enteric pathogens shed by wild animals admitted to either of 2 wildlife hospitals and to characterize distribution of these pathogens and of aerobic bacteria in a hospital environment. Design-Cross-sectional study. Sample-Fecal samples from 338 animals in 2 wildlife hospitals and environmental samples from 1 wildlife hospital. Procedures-Fecal samples were collected within 24 hours of hospital admission. Environmental samples were collected from air and surfaces. Samples were tested for zoonotic pathogens via culture techniques and biochemical analyses. Prevalence of pathogen shedding was compared among species groups, ages, sexes, and seasons. Bacterial counts were determined for environmental samples. Results-Campylobacter spp, Vibrio spp, Salmonella spp, Giardia spp, and Cryptosporidium spp (alone or in combination) were detected in 105 of 338 (31%) fecal samples. Campylobacter spp were isolated only from birds. Juvenile passerines were more likely to shed Campylobacter spp than were adults; prevalence increased among juvenile passerines during summer. Non-O1 serotypes of Vibrio cholerae were isolated from birds; during an oil-spill response, 9 of 10 seabirds screened were shedding this pathogen, which was also detected in environmental samples. Salmonella spp and Giardia spp were isolated from birds and mammals; Cryptosporidium spp were isolated from mammals only. Floors of animal rooms had higher bacterial counts than did floors with only human traffic. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Potentially zoonotic enteric pathogens were identified in samples from several species admitted to wildlife hospitals, indicating potential for transmission if prevention is not practiced.

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