Diabetes mellitus is one of the major contributors to chronic wound healing problems. When diabetic patients develop an ulcer, they become at high risk for major complications, including infection and amputation. The pathophysiologic relationship between diabetes and impaired healing is complex. Vascular, neuropathic, immune function, and biochemical abnormalities each contribute to the altered tissue repair. Despite treatment of these chronic wounds, which involves tight glucose control and meticulous wound care, the prognosis for their healing is quite poor. Newer modalities that deliver natural or engineered growth factors show a great deal of promise. All of the studies clearly show the continued need for well-controlled clinical trials.
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