Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of gender on the immediate and long-term postoperative morbidity, mortality, and patency rates for infrainguinal autogenous vein bypass grafts. Methods: Data were abstracted for consecutive patients who were followed in a prospective surveillance protocol after undergoing infrainguinal autogenous vein bypass grafting during the years 1988 to 1994. There were 165 grafts constructed in 148 patients (101 in 87 men, and 64 in 61 women). Gender differences were analyzed with Student t test or χ2 test for risk factors, indications for reconstruction, and complications. The patency rates and the long-term survival rates were compared by means of life-table analysis. Eagle criteria and long-term survival rates were compared with multivariate analysis. Results: The mean follow-up period was 36 months (39 months for men, and 32 months for women), with a range of 6 to 123 months for the total follow-up period. The two groups did not differ in age at the time of operation (66.6 ± 1.2 years for men, and 66.7 ± 1.5 years for women) or in history of diabetes (48% for men, and 56% for women). The risks were similar for hypertension (48% for men vs 45% women), preoperative myocardial infarction (23% for men vs 26% for women), and previous coronary artery bypass grafting (9% for men vs 8% for women). The thallium stress scintigraphy results showed a diagnosis of proportionately more preoperative defects in men (reversible, 34% vs 18%, P < .05; overall, 75% vs 43%, P < .05). The 30-day limb loss rates (0.9% for men, and 0% for women) and mortality rates (2.2% for men, and 5% for women) were similar. Women had statistically more perioperative myocardial infarctions than did men (6 of 61, 9.8% vs 2 of 101, 2%; P < .05), as was documented with electrocardiography and cardiac isoenzymes. Two of these women died within a 30-day postoperative period. The 3-year primary patency rate was 85% for the men and 88% for the women, and the primary assisted patency rate was 97% for the men and 97% for the women. The secondary patency rate was 98% for the men and 97% for the women. The limb salvage rate was slightly higher for the men than for the women (93% vs 87%), although this was not statistically significant. The 5-year survival rate for women was statistically less than for men, with life-table analysis (58% for men vs 42% for women; P < .05). Conclusion: After distal bypass grafting, men and women have similar rates of patency and limb salvage, but women have a higher incidence rate of perioperative myocardial infarction and a decreased 5-year survival rate. These data suggest that women have unrecognized cardiac disease that affects them adversely in the perioperative period and the long term when compared with men who undergo the same operation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine