Women and Minorities Underrepresented in Academic Cardiothoracic Surgery: It's Time for Next Steps

Katherine A. Ortmeyer, Vignesh Raman, Chidinma Tiko-Okoye, Jairo Espinosa, David T. Cooke, Cherie P. Erkmen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Women and racial and ethnic minorities are underrepresented among U.S. physicians, but are limited data on cardiothoracic surgery diversity. This study characterizes current racial and ethnic and gender diversity in academic cardiothoracic surgery. Methods: Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and Association of American Medical Colleges databases were queried for racial and ethnic and gender demographics of residents and faculty. Cardiothoracic surgery was compared with other surgical subspecialties and medicine overall. Results: A total of 17% of cardiothoracic faculty were women, compared with 27% of surgical faculty (P <.01) and 43% of clinical faculty (P <.01). A total of 63% of cardiothoracic faculty were White, compared with 70% of surgical faculty (P <.01) and 66% of clinical faculty (P =.10). A total of 24% of cardiothoracic faculty were Asian American/Pacific Islander, compared with 18% of surgical faculty (P <.01) and 20% of clinical faculty (P =.03). Black/African American and Hispanic physicians composed 3% and 5% of cardiothoracic faculty, respectively, similar to surgical and clinical faculty. A total of 24% of cardiothoracic trainees were women, compared with 36% of surgical residents (P <.01) and 46% of all residents (P <.01). A total of 66% of cardiothoracic residents were White, compared with 55% of residents overall (P <.01) and 65% of surgery residents (P =.68). A total of 18% of cardiothoracic residents were Asian American/Pacific Islander, compared with 17% of surgery residents (P =.87) and 24% of residents overall (P <.01). Black/African American and Hispanic residents composed 4% and 5% of cardiothoracic residents, respectively, similar to surgery and residents overall. Conclusions: Women and racial and ethnic minorities are significantly underrepresented among trainees and faculty in academic cardiothoracic surgery compared with surgery and medicine overall, demonstrating a need for concerted action.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAnnals of Thoracic Surgery
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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