Wilderness medical society practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of frostbite: 2014 update

Scott E. McIntosh, Matthew Opacic, Luanne Freer, Colin K. Grissom, Paul S. Auerbach, George W Rodway, Amalia Cochran, Gordon G. Giesbrecht, Marion McDevitt, Christopher H. Imray, Eric L. Johnson, Jennifer Dow, Peter H. Hackett

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

48 Scopus citations

Abstract

The Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel to develop a set of evidence-based guidelines for the prevention and treatment of frostbite. We present a review of pertinent pathophysiology. We then discuss primary and secondary prevention measures and therapeutic management. Recommendations are made regarding each treatment and its role in management. These recommendations are graded on the basis of the quality of supporting evidence and balance between the benefits and risks or burdens for each modality according to methodology stipulated by the American College of Chest Physicians. This is an updated version of the original guidelines published in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 2011;22(2):156-166.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S43-S54
JournalWilderness and Environmental Medicine
Volume25
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2014
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • aloe vera
  • frostbite
  • frostbite prevention
  • hypothermia
  • rewarming
  • thrombolysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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    McIntosh, S. E., Opacic, M., Freer, L., Grissom, C. K., Auerbach, P. S., Rodway, G. W., Cochran, A., Giesbrecht, G. G., McDevitt, M., Imray, C. H., Johnson, E. L., Dow, J., & Hackett, P. H. (2014). Wilderness medical society practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of frostbite: 2014 update. Wilderness and Environmental Medicine, 25(4), S43-S54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wem.2014.09.001