Wilderness medical society practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of frostbite

Scott E. McIntosh, Matthew Hamonko, Luanne Freer, Colin K. Grissom, Paul S. Auerbach, George W Rodway, Amalia Cochran, Gordon Giesbrecht, Marion McDevitt, Christopher H. Imray, Eric Johnson, Jennifer Dow, Peter H. Hackett

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

53 Scopus citations


The Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel to develop a set of evidence-based guidelines for the prevention and treatment of frostbite. We present a review of pertinent pathophysiology. We then discuss primary and secondary prevention measures and therapeutic management. Recommendations are made regarding each treatment and its role in management. These recommendations are graded based on the quality of supporting evidence and balance between the benefits and risks/burdens for each modality according to methodology stipulated by the American College of Chest Physicians.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)156-166
Number of pages11
JournalWilderness and Environmental Medicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • aloe vera
  • frostbite
  • frostbite prevention
  • hypothermia
  • rewarming
  • thrombolysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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