Whole-grain intake may reduce the risk of ischemic heart disease death in postmenopausal women

The Iowa women's health study

David R. Jacobs, Katie A. Meyer, Lawrence H. Kushi, Aaron R. Folsom

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

467 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: A recent review of epidemiologic literature found consistently reduced cancer and heart disease rates in persons with high compared with low whole-grain intakes. Objective: We hypothesized that whole- grain intake was associated with a reduced risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) death. Design: We studied 34492 postmenopausal women aged 55-69 y and free of IHD at baseline in 1986. There were 438 IHD deaths between baseline and 1995. Usual dietary intake was determined with use of a 127-item food- frequency questionnaire. Results: Whole-grain intake in median servings/d was 0.2, 0.9, 1.2, 1.9, and 3.2 for quintiles of intake. The unadjusted rate of IHD death was 2.0/1 x 103 person-years in quintile 1 and was 1.7, 1.2, 1.0, and 1.4 IHD deaths/1 x 103 person-years in succeeding quintiles (P for trend < 0.001). Adjusted for demographic, physiologic, behavioral, and dietary variables, relative hazards were 1.0, 0.96, 0.71, 0.64, and 0.70 in ascending quintiles (P for trend = 0.02). The lower risk with higher whole-grain intake was not explained by intake of fiber or several other constituents of whole grains. Conclusion: A clear inverse association between whole-grain intake and risk of IHD death existed. A causal association is plausible because whole-grain foods contain many phytochemicals, including fiber and antioxidants, that may reduce chronic disease risk. Whole-grain intake should be studied further for its potential to prevent IHD and cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)248-257
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume68
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 1998
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

grain consumption
women's health
Women's Health
myocardial ischemia
Myocardial Ischemia
death
whole grain foods
dietary fiber
neoplasms
Food
food frequency questionnaires
heart diseases
Heart Neoplasms
Whole Grains
chronic diseases
Phytochemicals
phytopharmaceuticals
food intake
demographic statistics
Heart Diseases

Keywords

  • Diet
  • Epidemiology
  • Heart disease
  • Iowa Women's Health Study
  • Prospective study
  • Whole grains
  • Women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Food Science

Cite this

Whole-grain intake may reduce the risk of ischemic heart disease death in postmenopausal women : The Iowa women's health study. / Jacobs, David R.; Meyer, Katie A.; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Folsom, Aaron R.

In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 68, No. 2, 08.1998, p. 248-257.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Jacobs, David R. ; Meyer, Katie A. ; Kushi, Lawrence H. ; Folsom, Aaron R. / Whole-grain intake may reduce the risk of ischemic heart disease death in postmenopausal women : The Iowa women's health study. In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1998 ; Vol. 68, No. 2. pp. 248-257.
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