Whole-blood glucose and lactate

Trilayer biosensors, drug interference, metabolism, and practice guidelines

Gerald J Kost, T. H. Nguyen, Z. Tang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

36 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective. To assess the effects of 30 of the most commonly used critical care drugs on measurements obtained with trilayer electrochemical biosensors on a reference analyzer (ABL625-GL), to determine metabolic changes in glucose and lactate in vitro, and to formulate guidelines for whole-blood analysis of these 2 analytes. Design. Serial measurements were taken of changes in glucose and lactate levels caused by metabolism in whole blood in vitro over time. A parallel control study of drug interference with measurements of glucose and lactate in whole blood and of dose-response relationships in whole-blood samples and in plasma samples also was conducted. Results. At room temperature, whole-blood metabolism decreased glucose levels -2.3% at 15 minutes, -4.6% at 30 minutes, and -6.4% at 45 minutes. Metabolism increased lactate levels 11.4% at 15 minutes, 20.6% at 30 minutes, and 26.7% at 45 minutes in vitro. Paired differences between drug-spiked and control samples were calculated to determine interference (corrected for metabolism). The threshold for determination of interference was ±2 SD from within-day precision, equal to ±0.18 and ±0.10 mmol/L, for glucose and lactate, respectively. Only mannitol (C6H(14)O6) interfered with glucose and lactate measurements. At a concentration of 24 mg/mL, mannitol decreased whole-blood glucose levels by an average of 0.711 mmol/L (12.8 mg/dL) and whole-blood lactate levels by 0.16 mmol/L (1.4 mg/dL). Mannitol interference with measurements may have resulted from suppression of hydrogen peroxide formation in the enzymatic reactions in the biosensors, repartitioning of water between erythrocytes and plasma, or from other mechanisms. Conclusions. Most critical care drugs had no significant effects on the trilayer electrochemical biosensors. Whole-blood analysis should be performed within 15 minutes for lactate and within 30 minutes for glucose because of metabolism in vitro. Mannitol effects on glucose measurements may be clinically significant in mannitol-induced acute renal failure and therefore should be considered for appropriate diagnosis and treatment of critically ill patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1128-1134
Number of pages7
JournalArchives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
Volume124
Issue number8
StatePublished - 2000

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Biosensing Techniques
Practice Guidelines
Blood Glucose
Lactic Acid
Mannitol
Glucose
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Drug and Narcotic Control
Critical Care
Acute Kidney Injury
Critical Illness
Hydrogen Peroxide
Erythrocytes
Guidelines
Temperature
In Vitro Techniques
Water

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Medical Laboratory Technology

Cite this

Whole-blood glucose and lactate : Trilayer biosensors, drug interference, metabolism, and practice guidelines. / Kost, Gerald J; Nguyen, T. H.; Tang, Z.

In: Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Vol. 124, No. 8, 2000, p. 1128-1134.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Objective. To assess the effects of 30 of the most commonly used critical care drugs on measurements obtained with trilayer electrochemical biosensors on a reference analyzer (ABL625-GL), to determine metabolic changes in glucose and lactate in vitro, and to formulate guidelines for whole-blood analysis of these 2 analytes. Design. Serial measurements were taken of changes in glucose and lactate levels caused by metabolism in whole blood in vitro over time. A parallel control study of drug interference with measurements of glucose and lactate in whole blood and of dose-response relationships in whole-blood samples and in plasma samples also was conducted. Results. At room temperature, whole-blood metabolism decreased glucose levels -2.3{\%} at 15 minutes, -4.6{\%} at 30 minutes, and -6.4{\%} at 45 minutes. Metabolism increased lactate levels 11.4{\%} at 15 minutes, 20.6{\%} at 30 minutes, and 26.7{\%} at 45 minutes in vitro. Paired differences between drug-spiked and control samples were calculated to determine interference (corrected for metabolism). The threshold for determination of interference was ±2 SD from within-day precision, equal to ±0.18 and ±0.10 mmol/L, for glucose and lactate, respectively. Only mannitol (C6H(14)O6) interfered with glucose and lactate measurements. At a concentration of 24 mg/mL, mannitol decreased whole-blood glucose levels by an average of 0.711 mmol/L (12.8 mg/dL) and whole-blood lactate levels by 0.16 mmol/L (1.4 mg/dL). Mannitol interference with measurements may have resulted from suppression of hydrogen peroxide formation in the enzymatic reactions in the biosensors, repartitioning of water between erythrocytes and plasma, or from other mechanisms. Conclusions. Most critical care drugs had no significant effects on the trilayer electrochemical biosensors. Whole-blood analysis should be performed within 15 minutes for lactate and within 30 minutes for glucose because of metabolism in vitro. Mannitol effects on glucose measurements may be clinically significant in mannitol-induced acute renal failure and therefore should be considered for appropriate diagnosis and treatment of critically ill patients.",
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N2 - Objective. To assess the effects of 30 of the most commonly used critical care drugs on measurements obtained with trilayer electrochemical biosensors on a reference analyzer (ABL625-GL), to determine metabolic changes in glucose and lactate in vitro, and to formulate guidelines for whole-blood analysis of these 2 analytes. Design. Serial measurements were taken of changes in glucose and lactate levels caused by metabolism in whole blood in vitro over time. A parallel control study of drug interference with measurements of glucose and lactate in whole blood and of dose-response relationships in whole-blood samples and in plasma samples also was conducted. Results. At room temperature, whole-blood metabolism decreased glucose levels -2.3% at 15 minutes, -4.6% at 30 minutes, and -6.4% at 45 minutes. Metabolism increased lactate levels 11.4% at 15 minutes, 20.6% at 30 minutes, and 26.7% at 45 minutes in vitro. Paired differences between drug-spiked and control samples were calculated to determine interference (corrected for metabolism). The threshold for determination of interference was ±2 SD from within-day precision, equal to ±0.18 and ±0.10 mmol/L, for glucose and lactate, respectively. Only mannitol (C6H(14)O6) interfered with glucose and lactate measurements. At a concentration of 24 mg/mL, mannitol decreased whole-blood glucose levels by an average of 0.711 mmol/L (12.8 mg/dL) and whole-blood lactate levels by 0.16 mmol/L (1.4 mg/dL). Mannitol interference with measurements may have resulted from suppression of hydrogen peroxide formation in the enzymatic reactions in the biosensors, repartitioning of water between erythrocytes and plasma, or from other mechanisms. Conclusions. Most critical care drugs had no significant effects on the trilayer electrochemical biosensors. Whole-blood analysis should be performed within 15 minutes for lactate and within 30 minutes for glucose because of metabolism in vitro. Mannitol effects on glucose measurements may be clinically significant in mannitol-induced acute renal failure and therefore should be considered for appropriate diagnosis and treatment of critically ill patients.

AB - Objective. To assess the effects of 30 of the most commonly used critical care drugs on measurements obtained with trilayer electrochemical biosensors on a reference analyzer (ABL625-GL), to determine metabolic changes in glucose and lactate in vitro, and to formulate guidelines for whole-blood analysis of these 2 analytes. Design. Serial measurements were taken of changes in glucose and lactate levels caused by metabolism in whole blood in vitro over time. A parallel control study of drug interference with measurements of glucose and lactate in whole blood and of dose-response relationships in whole-blood samples and in plasma samples also was conducted. Results. At room temperature, whole-blood metabolism decreased glucose levels -2.3% at 15 minutes, -4.6% at 30 minutes, and -6.4% at 45 minutes. Metabolism increased lactate levels 11.4% at 15 minutes, 20.6% at 30 minutes, and 26.7% at 45 minutes in vitro. Paired differences between drug-spiked and control samples were calculated to determine interference (corrected for metabolism). The threshold for determination of interference was ±2 SD from within-day precision, equal to ±0.18 and ±0.10 mmol/L, for glucose and lactate, respectively. Only mannitol (C6H(14)O6) interfered with glucose and lactate measurements. At a concentration of 24 mg/mL, mannitol decreased whole-blood glucose levels by an average of 0.711 mmol/L (12.8 mg/dL) and whole-blood lactate levels by 0.16 mmol/L (1.4 mg/dL). Mannitol interference with measurements may have resulted from suppression of hydrogen peroxide formation in the enzymatic reactions in the biosensors, repartitioning of water between erythrocytes and plasma, or from other mechanisms. Conclusions. Most critical care drugs had no significant effects on the trilayer electrochemical biosensors. Whole-blood analysis should be performed within 15 minutes for lactate and within 30 minutes for glucose because of metabolism in vitro. Mannitol effects on glucose measurements may be clinically significant in mannitol-induced acute renal failure and therefore should be considered for appropriate diagnosis and treatment of critically ill patients.

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