Whey components: Millennia of evolution create functionalities for mammalian nutrition: What we know and what we may be overlooking

R. L. Walzem, C. J. Dillard, J. B. German

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

178 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Nutrition is undergoing a revolution owing to the recognition that some foods contain trophic, health-promoting factors distinct from essential nutrients. In this revolution, whey is increasingly being viewed as more than a source of proteins with a particularly nutritious composition of essential amino acids. Milk evolved under continuous Darwinian selection pressure to nourish mammalian neonates. Evolutionary pressure appears to have led to the elaboration of a complex food that contains proteins, peptides, complex lipids, and oligosaccharides that act as growth factors, toxin-binding factors, antimicrobial peptides, prebiotics, and immune regulatory factors within the mammalian intestine. Importantly, these trophic macromolecules are not essential, although the health benefits that their biological activities within the intestine provide likely contributed to neonatal survival. Human and bovine milks contain many homologous components, and bovine whey may prove to be a source for molecules capable of providing biological activities to humans when consumed as food ingredients. To approach this potential, food and nutrition research must move beyond the description of food ingredients as delivering only essential nutrients and develop a mechanistic understanding of the interactions between dietary components and the metabolic and physiological properties of the intestine.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)353-375
Number of pages23
JournalCritical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Volume42
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2002

Fingerprint

Nutrition
whey
intestines
nutrition
Food
protein sources
bioactive properties
ingredients
milk
nutrition research
health promotion
Bioactivity
food research
Intestines
antimicrobial peptides
Peptides
Nutrients
nutrients
prebiotics
breast milk

Keywords

  • Bioactive molecules
  • Functional properties
  • Lipids
  • Proteins

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Food Science

Cite this

Whey components : Millennia of evolution create functionalities for mammalian nutrition: What we know and what we may be overlooking. / Walzem, R. L.; Dillard, C. J.; German, J. B.

In: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, Vol. 42, No. 4, 08.2002, p. 353-375.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{ca2b4d44ac714c0aaee6f1655a7f50e6,
title = "Whey components: Millennia of evolution create functionalities for mammalian nutrition: What we know and what we may be overlooking",
abstract = "Nutrition is undergoing a revolution owing to the recognition that some foods contain trophic, health-promoting factors distinct from essential nutrients. In this revolution, whey is increasingly being viewed as more than a source of proteins with a particularly nutritious composition of essential amino acids. Milk evolved under continuous Darwinian selection pressure to nourish mammalian neonates. Evolutionary pressure appears to have led to the elaboration of a complex food that contains proteins, peptides, complex lipids, and oligosaccharides that act as growth factors, toxin-binding factors, antimicrobial peptides, prebiotics, and immune regulatory factors within the mammalian intestine. Importantly, these trophic macromolecules are not essential, although the health benefits that their biological activities within the intestine provide likely contributed to neonatal survival. Human and bovine milks contain many homologous components, and bovine whey may prove to be a source for molecules capable of providing biological activities to humans when consumed as food ingredients. To approach this potential, food and nutrition research must move beyond the description of food ingredients as delivering only essential nutrients and develop a mechanistic understanding of the interactions between dietary components and the metabolic and physiological properties of the intestine.",
keywords = "Bioactive molecules, Functional properties, Lipids, Proteins",
author = "Walzem, {R. L.} and Dillard, {C. J.} and German, {J. B.}",
year = "2002",
month = "8",
doi = "10.1080/10408690290825574",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "42",
pages = "353--375",
journal = "Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition",
issn = "1040-8398",
publisher = "Taylor and Francis Ltd.",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Whey components

T2 - Millennia of evolution create functionalities for mammalian nutrition: What we know and what we may be overlooking

AU - Walzem, R. L.

AU - Dillard, C. J.

AU - German, J. B.

PY - 2002/8

Y1 - 2002/8

N2 - Nutrition is undergoing a revolution owing to the recognition that some foods contain trophic, health-promoting factors distinct from essential nutrients. In this revolution, whey is increasingly being viewed as more than a source of proteins with a particularly nutritious composition of essential amino acids. Milk evolved under continuous Darwinian selection pressure to nourish mammalian neonates. Evolutionary pressure appears to have led to the elaboration of a complex food that contains proteins, peptides, complex lipids, and oligosaccharides that act as growth factors, toxin-binding factors, antimicrobial peptides, prebiotics, and immune regulatory factors within the mammalian intestine. Importantly, these trophic macromolecules are not essential, although the health benefits that their biological activities within the intestine provide likely contributed to neonatal survival. Human and bovine milks contain many homologous components, and bovine whey may prove to be a source for molecules capable of providing biological activities to humans when consumed as food ingredients. To approach this potential, food and nutrition research must move beyond the description of food ingredients as delivering only essential nutrients and develop a mechanistic understanding of the interactions between dietary components and the metabolic and physiological properties of the intestine.

AB - Nutrition is undergoing a revolution owing to the recognition that some foods contain trophic, health-promoting factors distinct from essential nutrients. In this revolution, whey is increasingly being viewed as more than a source of proteins with a particularly nutritious composition of essential amino acids. Milk evolved under continuous Darwinian selection pressure to nourish mammalian neonates. Evolutionary pressure appears to have led to the elaboration of a complex food that contains proteins, peptides, complex lipids, and oligosaccharides that act as growth factors, toxin-binding factors, antimicrobial peptides, prebiotics, and immune regulatory factors within the mammalian intestine. Importantly, these trophic macromolecules are not essential, although the health benefits that their biological activities within the intestine provide likely contributed to neonatal survival. Human and bovine milks contain many homologous components, and bovine whey may prove to be a source for molecules capable of providing biological activities to humans when consumed as food ingredients. To approach this potential, food and nutrition research must move beyond the description of food ingredients as delivering only essential nutrients and develop a mechanistic understanding of the interactions between dietary components and the metabolic and physiological properties of the intestine.

KW - Bioactive molecules

KW - Functional properties

KW - Lipids

KW - Proteins

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0036653591&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0036653591&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1080/10408690290825574

DO - 10.1080/10408690290825574

M3 - Article

C2 - 12180777

AN - SCOPUS:0036653591

VL - 42

SP - 353

EP - 375

JO - Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition

JF - Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition

SN - 1040-8398

IS - 4

ER -