When can we expect global sagittal alignment to reach a stable value following cervical deformity surgery?

International Spine Study Group (ISSG)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: Cervical deformity (CD) is a complex condition with a clear impact on patient quality of life, which can be improved with surgical treatment. Previous study following thoracolumbar surgery demonstrated a spontaneous and maintained improvement in cervical alignment following lumbar pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO). In this study the authors aimed to investigate the complementary questions of whether cervical alignment induces a change in global alignment and whether this change stabilizes over time. Methods: To analyze spontaneous changes, this study included only patients with at least 5 levels remaining unfused following surgery. After data were obtained for the entire cohort, repeated-measures analyses were conducted between preoperative baseline and 3-month and 1-year follow-ups with a post hoc analysis and Bonferroni correction. A subanalysis of patients with 2-year follow-up was performed. Results: One-year follow-up data were available for 121 of 168 patients (72%), and 89 patients had at least 5 levels remaining unfused following surgery. Preoperatively there was a moderate anterior cervical alignment (C2-7, -7.7° [kyphosis]; T1 slope minus cervical lordosis, 37.1°; cervical sagittal vertebral axis [cSVA], 37 mm) combined with a posterior global alignment (SVA, -8 mm) with lumbar hyperextension (pelvic incidence [PI] minus lumbar lordosis [LL] mismatch [PI-LL], -0.6°). Patients underwent a significant correction of the cervical alignment (median ΔC2-7, 13.6°). Simultaneously, PI-LL, T1 pelvic angle (TPA), and SVA increased significantly (all p < 0.05) between baseline and 3-month and 1-year follow-ups. Post hoc analysis demonstrated that all of the changes occurred between baseline and 3 months. Subanalysis of patients with complete 2-year follow-up demonstrated similar results, with stable postoperative thoracolumbar alignment achieved at 3 months. Conclusions: Correction of cervical malalignment can have a significant impact on thoracolumbar regional and global alignment. Peak relaxation of compensatory mechanisms is achieved by the 3-month follow-up and tends to remain stable. Subanalysis with 2-year data further supports this finding. These findings can help to identify when the results of cervical surgery on global alignment can be best evaluated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)616-623
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Neurosurgery: Spine
Volume36
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2022

Keywords

  • cervical deformity
  • compensation
  • maintenance of alignment
  • reciprocal change

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology

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