What’s new in traumatic brain injury: Update on tracking, monitoring and treatment

Cesar Reis, Yuechun Wang, Onat Akyol, Wing Mann Ho, Richard Lee Applegate, Gary Stier, Robert Martin, John H. Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Scopus citations


Traumatic brain injury (TBI), defined as an alteration in brain functions caused by an external force, is responsible for high morbidity and mortality around the world. It is important to identify and treat TBI victims as early as possible. Tracking and monitoring TBI with neuroimaging technologies, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), positron emission tomography (PET), and high definition fiber tracking (HDFT) show increasing sensitivity and specificity. Classical electrophysiological monitoring, together with newly established brain-on-chip, cerebral microdialysis techniques, both benefit TBI. First generation molecular biomarkers, based on genomic and proteomic changes following TBI, have proven effective and economical. It is conceivable that TBI-specific biomarkers will be developed with the  combination of systems biology and bioinformation strategies. Advances in treatment of TBI include stem cell-based and nanotechnology-based therapy, physical and pharmaceutical interventions and also new use in TBI for approved drugs which all present favorable promise in preventing and reversing TBI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)11903-11965
Number of pages63
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number6
StatePublished - May 26 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Biomarker
  • Electrophysiology
  • Genomic
  • Hypothermia
  • Microdialysis
  • Nano particle
  • Neuroimaging
  • Proteomic
  • Stem cell
  • Traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Spectroscopy
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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