What is metabolic syndrome, and why are children getting it?

Ram Weiss, Andrew A. Bremer, Robert H. Lustig

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

153 Scopus citations

Abstract

Metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, altered glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia, and abdominal obesity) that occur in obese children. However, metabolic syndrome can also occur in lean individuals, suggesting that obesity is a marker for the syndrome, not a cause. Metabolic syndrome is difficult to define, due to its nonuniform classification and reliance on hard cutoffs in the evaluation of disorders with non-Gaussian distributions. Defining the syndrome is even more difficult in children, owing to racial and pubertal differences and lack of cardiovascular events. Lipid partitioning among specific fat depots is associated with insulin resistance, which can lead to mitochondrial overload and dysfunctional subcellular energy use and drive the various elements of metabolic syndrome. Multiple environmental factors, in particular a typical Western diet, drive mitochondrial overload, while other changes in Western society, such as stress and sleep deprivation, increase insulin resistance and the propensity for food intake. These culminate in an adverse biochemical phenotype, including development of altered glucose metabolism and early atherogenesis during childhood and early adulthood.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)123-140
Number of pages18
JournalAnnals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Volume1281
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2013
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Diet
  • Insulin resistance
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Obesity
  • Reactive oxygen species

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • History and Philosophy of Science

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