West Nile virus in Pakistan. II. Entomological studies at Changa Manga National Forest, Punjab Province

William Reisen, C. G. Hayes, K. Azra, S. Niaz, F. Mahmood, T. Parveen, P. F.L. Boreham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


During 1978–1979, 43,729 adult mosquitoes comprising six genera and 30 species were collected during weekly resting and biting collections at the Changa Manga National Forest, Kasur District, Punjab Province. Emphasis was placed on studying the bionomics of Culex tritaeniorhynchus and other culicine mosquitoes to assess their potential role in the transmission of West Nile virus. Cx tritaeniorhynchus (57 · 7% of the total specimens collected), Cx quinquefasciatus (21 · 2%) and Aedes lineatopennis (8 · 2%) were the most abundant mosquito species. Based on comparisons between different collection methods and supported by microprecipitin tests on blood meals from resting females, the abundant mosquitoes were categorized into five groups: (i) resting in houses and feeding on man at night—Cx quinquefasciatus, (ii) resting indoors and feeding on bovids at night—five species of Anopheles, (iii) resting in the forest and feeding on man during day—Ae. yusafi and Ae. w-albus, (iv) resting in the forest and feeding on man during the day and night—Ae. indicus, (v) resting in agricultural fields or forest and feeding on bovids at night—Ae. caspius, Ae. culicinus, Ae. lineatopennis, Cx fuscocephala, Cx pseudovishnui, Cx tritaeniorhynchus and Mansonia uniformis. Few blood smears were positive for birds, with the exception of Cx quinquefasciatus collecting resting outdoors. No species other than Cx quinquefasciatus frequently fed on man. Cx tritaeniorhynchus populations were most abundant during the hot-dry pre-monsoon season when the forest was irrigated, decreasing during the monsoon and post-monsoon seasons and absent in collections during winter. Vertical estimates of survivorship using dissection age-grading methods were highest during the pre-monsoon season. Cx quinquefasciatus was most abundant in spring when females could also be collected resting in the forest, decreasing during the hot, summer months, but recovering after the monsoon when temperatures in houses were once again below 30 °C. Overwintering eggs of Ae. lineatopennis synchronously hatched in the spring after forest irrigation, with succeeding generations appearing in response to irrigation and/or rainfall. The present findings were discussed in the context of West Nile virus ecology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)437-448
Number of pages12
JournalTransactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jan 1 1982
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


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