West Nile virus in Pakistan. 1. Sero-epidemiological studies in Punjab Province

William Reisen, M. A. Chowdhry, C. G. Hayes, S. Baqar, T. Ahmed

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65 Scopus citations


Serum samples collected during 1978–1979 from residents of the Chiniot and Changa Manga National Forest (CMF) areas of Punjab Province, Pakistan, had over-all neutralizing (N) antibody positive rates for West Nile (WN) virus of 32·8% (n = 192) and 38·5% (n = 239), respectively. Comparison of the age-specific antibody rates indicated that the pattern of exposure to infection was different in the two areas. Samples from a 1968 serosurvey of residents of the CMF area had an age-specific N antibody profile similar to the 1978 CMF sample, but both the over-all N and haemagglutinationinhibition (HI) antibody positive rates were much higher in the 1968 sample. When tested against antigen prepared from the Pakistan I-746 strain of WN virus, the percentage of sera HI antibody positive and the geometric mean titre of the sera were significantly higher than when tested against the Egypt-101 antigen. One of 124 and 11 of 50 sera from the 1978 and 1968 samples from CMF exhibited detectable HI antibody against dengue-3 virus, respectively, indicating cross-reacting flavivirus antibody was present. None of the positive sera had a higher titre against dengue-3 than against WN virus, but four of the 1968 sera reacted to equal titre against both antigens. During the 1978–1979 CMF survey, serum samples from domestic and wild animals were tested for WN virus antibody. Of the 317 wild birds captured, 85 were N-antibody positive. The only frequently bled mammal was the Indian cow, from which 21 of 58 samples were positive for WN antibody.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)431-436
Number of pages6
JournalTransactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jan 1 1982
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


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