Weak force stalls protrusion at the leading edge of the lamellipodium

Sophie Bohnet, Revathi Ananthakrishnan, Alex Mogilner, Jean Jacques Meister, Alexander B. Verkhovsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

39 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Protrusion, the first step of cell migration, is driven by actin polymerization coupled to adhesion at the cell's leading edge. Polymerization and adhesive forces have been estimated, but the net protrusion force has not been measured accurately. We arrest the leading edge of a moving fish keratocyte with a hydrodynamic load generated by a fluid flow from a micropipette. The flow arrests protrusion locally as the cell approaches the pipette, causing an arc-shaped indentation and upward folding of the leading edge. The effect of the flow is reversible upon pipette removal and dependent on the flow direction, suggesting that it is a direct effect of the external force rather than a regulated cellular response. Modeling of the fluid flow gives a surprisingly low value for the arresting force of just a few piconewtons per micrometer. Enhanced phase contrast, fluorescence, and interference reflection microscopy suggest that the flow does not abolish actin polymerization and does not disrupt the adhesions formed before the arrest but rather interferes with weak nascent adhesions at the very front of the cell. We conclude that a weak external force is sufficient to reorient the growing actin network at the leading edge and to stall the protrusion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1810-1820
Number of pages11
JournalBiophysical Journal
Volume90
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2006

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Pseudopodia
Polymerization
Actins
Interference Microscopy
Hydrodynamics
Cell Adhesion
Adhesives
Cell Movement
Fishes
Fluorescence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics

Cite this

Bohnet, S., Ananthakrishnan, R., Mogilner, A., Meister, J. J., & Verkhovsky, A. B. (2006). Weak force stalls protrusion at the leading edge of the lamellipodium. Biophysical Journal, 90(5), 1810-1820. https://doi.org/10.1529/biophysj.105.064600

Weak force stalls protrusion at the leading edge of the lamellipodium. / Bohnet, Sophie; Ananthakrishnan, Revathi; Mogilner, Alex; Meister, Jean Jacques; Verkhovsky, Alexander B.

In: Biophysical Journal, Vol. 90, No. 5, 03.2006, p. 1810-1820.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bohnet, S, Ananthakrishnan, R, Mogilner, A, Meister, JJ & Verkhovsky, AB 2006, 'Weak force stalls protrusion at the leading edge of the lamellipodium', Biophysical Journal, vol. 90, no. 5, pp. 1810-1820. https://doi.org/10.1529/biophysj.105.064600
Bohnet S, Ananthakrishnan R, Mogilner A, Meister JJ, Verkhovsky AB. Weak force stalls protrusion at the leading edge of the lamellipodium. Biophysical Journal. 2006 Mar;90(5):1810-1820. https://doi.org/10.1529/biophysj.105.064600
Bohnet, Sophie ; Ananthakrishnan, Revathi ; Mogilner, Alex ; Meister, Jean Jacques ; Verkhovsky, Alexander B. / Weak force stalls protrusion at the leading edge of the lamellipodium. In: Biophysical Journal. 2006 ; Vol. 90, No. 5. pp. 1810-1820.
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