WARM N COLD: Malignant and benign renal tumors in children

Thomas Ray Sanchez, Jonathan M Ducore, Jay Balagtas, Christopher Molloy, Sandra L. Wootton-Gorges

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Although Wilms tumor is the most common renal malignancy in children, the differential diagnosis is extensive and includes both malignant and benign disorders. We present a simple mnemonic-WARM N COLD, to aid in remembering these diverse tumors. Imaging clues including age of the patient, associated disease or syndrome as well as salient imaging characteristics such as bilaterality, and type or presence of metastasis are also presented and can help differentiate between these renal tumors of childhood.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)261-269
Number of pages9
JournalEmergency Radiology
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2014


  • Children
  • CT scan
  • Renal masses
  • Wilms tumor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Emergency Medicine
  • Medicine(all)


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