Vorinostat and Concurrent Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Brain Metastases: A Phase 1 Dose Escalation Trial

Clara Y.H. Choi, Heather A. Wakelee, Joel W. Neal, Mary C. Pinder-Schenck, Hsiang Hsuan Michael Yu, Steven D. Chang, John R. Adler, Leslie A. Modlin, Griffith R. Harsh, Scott G. Soltys

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Purpose To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, given concurrently with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) brain metastases. Secondary objectives were to determine toxicity, local failure, distant intracranial failure, and overall survival rates. Materials and Methods In this multicenter study, patients with 1 to 4 NSCLC brain metastases, each ≤2 cm, were enrolled in a phase 1, 3 + 3 dose escalation trial. Vorinostat dose levels were 200, 300, and 400 mg orally once daily for 14 days. Single-fraction SRS was delivered on day 3. A dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined as any Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 grade 3 to 5 acute nonhematologic adverse event related to vorinostat or SRS occurring within 30 days. Results From 2009 to 2014, 17 patients were enrolled and 12 patients completed study treatment. Because no DLTs were observed, the MTD was established as 400 mg. Acute adverse events were reported by 10 patients (59%). Five patients discontinued vorinostat early and withdrew from the study. The most common reasons for withdrawal were dyspnea (n=2), nausea (n=1), and fatigue (n=2). With a median follow-up of 12 months (range, 1-64 months), Kaplan-Meier overall survival was 13 months. There were no local failures. One patient (8%) at the 400-mg dose level with a 2.0-cm metastasis developed histologically confirmed grade 4 radiation necrosis 2 months after SRS. Conclusions The MTD of vorinostat with concurrent SRS was established as 400 mg. Although no DLTs were observed, 5 patients withdrew before completing the treatment course, a result that emphasizes the need for supportive care during vorinostat administration. There were no local failures. A larger, randomized trial may evaluate both the tolerability and potential local control benefit of vorinostat concurrent with SRS for brain metastases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)16-21
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Sep 1 2017
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cancer Research


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