Trained singers and nonsingers vocally shadowed sequences of rapidly changing tones. Tone changes within the sequences were unpredictable in terms of direction and extent of frequency change. Subjects' responses to the shadowing task could be evaluated for accuracy of frequency matching, and for time and speed of voice frequency change. In addition, subjects' transitions between tones could be classified as hit, overshoot, undershoot, or oscillate. The two groups were equally accurate in matching the pitches of tones comprising the sequences. Similarly, pitch lowering was faster than pitch raising for both groups of subjects, while speeds for both lowering and raising increased with increases in size of the interval between tones. However, singers required less time than nonsingers in effecting transitions, apparently because they achieved faster peak speeds and took more direct paths between tones. Implications of the data for physiological and mechanical aspects of voice frequency control are discussed.
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