Visual accommodation in the flying fox (Pteropus giganteus)

Christopher J Murphy, H. C. Howland, G. G. Kwiecinski, T. Kern, F. kallen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


The flying fox, Pteropus giganteus, possesses a papillated retina and was previously thought to lack a mechanism for active accommodation. An investigation of the anatomy and physiology of accommodation in this megachiropteran bat revealed that it has a well developed ciliary muscle and that it can actively accommodate through a range of at least 3.12 D. In addition, it was found that the origin of the retinoscopic reflex does not reside in the receptor layer of the retina, because the focus of the eye is invariant for small changes of angle of refraction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)617-620
Number of pages4
JournalVision Research
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1983
Externally publishedYes


  • Accommodation
  • Anatomy
  • Dynamic photofraction
  • Flying fox
  • Megachiroptera
  • Optics
  • Photorefraction
  • Pteropus
  • Refraction
  • Retinoscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems


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