Virulence Plasmids of Spore-Forming Bacteria

Vicki Adams, Jihong Li, Jessica A. Wisniewski, Francisco A Uzal, Robert J. Moore, Bruce A. McClane, Julian I. Rood

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Plasmid-encoded virulence factors are important in the pathogenesis of diseases caused by spore-forming bacteria. Unlike many other bacteria, the most common virulence factors encoded by plasmids in Clostridium and Bacillus species are protein toxins. Clostridium perfringens causes several histotoxic and enterotoxin diseases in both humans and animals and produces a broad range of toxins, including many pore-forming toxins such as C. perfringens enterotoxin, epsilon-toxin, beta-toxin, and NetB. Genetic studies have led to the determination of the role of these toxins in disease pathogenesis. The genes for these toxins are generally carried on large conjugative plasmids that have common core replication, maintenance, and conjugation regions. There is considerable functional information available about the unique tcp conjugation locus carried by these plasmids, but less is known about plasmid maintenance. The latter is intriguing because many C. perfringens isolates stably maintain up to four different, but closely related, toxin plasmids. Toxin genes may also be plasmid-encoded in the neurotoxic clostridia. The tetanus toxin gene is located on a plasmid in Clostridium tetani, but the botulinum toxin genes may be chromosomal, plasmid-determined, or located on bacteriophages in Clostridium botulinum. In Bacillus anthracis it is well established that virulence is plasmid determined, with anthrax toxin genes located on pXO1 and capsule genes on a separate plasmid, pXO2. Orthologs of these plasmids are also found in other members of the Bacillus cereus group such as B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. In B. thuringiensis these plasmids may carry genes encoding one or more insecticidal toxins.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalMicrobiology spectrum
Volume2
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2014

Fingerprint

virulence
Spores
plasmid
toxin
Virulence
spore
Plasmids
Bacteria
bacterium
gene
Genes
tetanus
Tetanus Toxin
Bacillus thuringiensis
Clostridium perfringens
Bacillus cereus
Clostridium
Virulence Factors
Maintenance
anthrax

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Ecology
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Genetics
  • Cell Biology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Adams, V., Li, J., Wisniewski, J. A., Uzal, F. A., Moore, R. J., McClane, B. A., & Rood, J. I. (2014). Virulence Plasmids of Spore-Forming Bacteria. Microbiology spectrum, 2(6). https://doi.org/10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0024-2014

Virulence Plasmids of Spore-Forming Bacteria. / Adams, Vicki; Li, Jihong; Wisniewski, Jessica A.; Uzal, Francisco A; Moore, Robert J.; McClane, Bruce A.; Rood, Julian I.

In: Microbiology spectrum, Vol. 2, No. 6, 01.12.2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Adams, V, Li, J, Wisniewski, JA, Uzal, FA, Moore, RJ, McClane, BA & Rood, JI 2014, 'Virulence Plasmids of Spore-Forming Bacteria', Microbiology spectrum, vol. 2, no. 6. https://doi.org/10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0024-2014
Adams, Vicki ; Li, Jihong ; Wisniewski, Jessica A. ; Uzal, Francisco A ; Moore, Robert J. ; McClane, Bruce A. ; Rood, Julian I. / Virulence Plasmids of Spore-Forming Bacteria. In: Microbiology spectrum. 2014 ; Vol. 2, No. 6.
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