Virtual endoscopy of dogs using multi-detector row CT

Kazutaka Yamada, Manabu Morimoto, Miori Kishimoto, Erik R Wisner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Virtual endoscopy uses CT data to display hollow viscera such as the stomach, duodenum and colon as if by real endoscopic observation. The results are independent of the operator skill because virtual endoscopy does not require direct manipulation of endoscopic equipment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of virtual endoscopy in small animals. Ten beagles were examined by conventional endoscopy and virtual endoscopy using multidetector CT. Virtual images were image-processed at a workstation designed for depicting virtual endoscopy using CT data. Virtual images were visually comparable with conventional endoscopic images, especially in the area of the angular incisure and pylorus. The advantages of virtual endoscopy are observation from any viewing angle, a reduced learning curve for diagnostic interpretation, quantification of lesion size in three dimensions and a potential for reducing anesthesia time. The disadvantages of virtual endoscopy are a lack of color recognition information, an inability to retrieve biopsy samples, limited visualization of the duodenum, artifacts from respiration/peristalsis motion and an inability to observe function. Based on our results, we suggest that conventional endoscopy is still superior to virtual endoscopy in dogs. However, as technology improves, virtual endoscopy may emerge as a suitable alternative or adjunctive diagnostic tool for certain digestive disorders in small animals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)318-322
Number of pages5
JournalVeterinary Radiology and Ultrasound
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2007


  • Conventional endoscopy (CE)
  • Dogs
  • Multi-detector row CT (MDCT)
  • Virtual endoscopy (VE)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)


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