Viral, nutritional, and bacterial safety of flash-heated and pretoria-pasteurized breast milk to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in resource-poor countries: A pilot study

Kiersten Israel-Ballard, Caroline J Chantry, Kathryn Dewey, Bo Lönnerdal, Haynes Sheppard, Richard Donovan, James Carlson, Allyson Sage, Barbara Abrams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

55 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Heat-treated breast milk of HIV-positive mothers has potential to reduce vertical transmission. This study compared the impact of flash-heating (FH) and Pretoria pasteurization (PP) on HIV, nutrients, and antimicrobial properties in human milk. Methods: Milk samples were spiked with 1 × 108 copies/mL of clade C HIV-1 and treated with FH and PP. We measured HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) activity before and after heating (n = 5). Heat impact on vitamins A, B6, B12, and C; folate, riboflavin, thiamin, and antimicrobial proteins (lactoferrin and lysozyme) was assessed. Storage safety was evaluated by spiking with Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus. Results: Both methods inactivated ≥3 logs of HIV-1. FH resulted in undetectable RT activity. Neither method caused significant decrease in any vitamin, although reductions in vitamins C and E were noted. Heat decreased immunoreactive lactoferrin (P < 0.05) but not the proportions of lactoferrin and lysozyme surviving digestion. FH seems to retain more antibacterial activity. Both treatments eliminated spiked bacteria. Conclusions: FH may be superior to PP in eliminating all viral activity; both methods retained nutrients and destroyed bacterial contamination. Heat-treated breast milk merits further study as a safe and practical infant feeding option for HIV-positive mothers in developing countries.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)175-181
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Volume40
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2005

Keywords

  • Breast milk
  • Heat treatment
  • HIV
  • Mother-to-child transmission
  • Pasteurization
  • Perinatal transmission

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology
  • Immunology

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