Very brief focal ischemia simulating transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) can injure brain and induce Hsp70 protein

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57 Scopus citations


This study examined very brief focal ischemia that simulates transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) that occur in humans. Adult rats were subjected to sham operations or 5 min, 10 min, or 2 h of middle cerebral artery (MCA) ischemia using the suture (thread) model. Hsp70 protein was induced 24 h, 48 h and 72 h later in neurons throughout the entire MCA territory in many but not all animals. Following 5- and 10-minute MCA occlusions, 9 of 32 animals (28%) had microinfarcts mostly in dorsal lateral striatum. Uncommon Hsp70 stained intracellular cytoplasmic inclusions, some of which co-localized with activated caspase-3, were detected in microglia, macrophages, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Hsp70 stained neurons were TUNEL negative at 24 h and 48 h whereas some Hsp70 stained neurons were TUNEL positive at 72 h after reperfusion. Hsp70 positive, activated "bushy" microglia and Hsp70 negative, activated "polarized" or rod-shaped microglia were located outside of the microinfarcts. Thus, experimental focal ischemia simulating TIAs can: induce Hsp70 protein throughout the ischemic vessel territory; produce Hsp70 protein positive glial inclusions; activate Hsp70 positive and negative microglia; and cause microinfarcts in some animals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)183-197
Number of pages15
JournalBrain Research
StatePublished - Oct 9 2008


  • Brain
  • Heat shock protein
  • Infarction
  • Ischemia
  • Microglia
  • Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Developmental Biology
  • Molecular Biology


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