Variability of Urinary Concentrations of Phenols, Parabens, and Triclocarban during Pregnancy in First Morning Voids and Pooled Samples

Hyeong Moo Shin, Jiwon Oh, Kyunghoon Kim, Stefanie A. Busgang, Dana Boyd Barr, Parinya Panuwet, Rebecca Jean Schmidt, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Deborah H Bennett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Urinary concentrations of phenols, parabens, and triclocarban have been extensively used as biomarkers of exposure. However, because these compounds are quickly metabolized and excreted in urine, characterizing participants’ long-term average exposure from a few spot samples is challenging. To examine the variability of urinary concentrations of these compounds during pregnancy, we quantified four phenols, four parabens, and triclocarban in 357 first morning voids (FMVs) and 203 pooled samples collected during the second and third trimesters of 173 pregnancies. We computed intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) by the sample type (FMV and pool) across two trimesters and by the number of composite samples in pools, ranging from 2 to 4, within the same trimester. Among the three compounds detected in more than 50% of the samples, the ICCs across two trimesters were higher in pools (0.29-0.68) than in FMVs (0.17-0.52) and the highest ICC within the same trimester was observed when pooling either two or three composites. Methyl paraben and propyl paraben primarily exposed via cosmetic use had approximately 2-3 times higher ICCs than bisphenol A primarily exposed via diet. Our findings support that within-subject pooling of biospecimens can increase the reproducibility of pregnant women’s exposure to these compounds and thus could potentially minimize exposure misclassification.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)16001-16010
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Volume55
Issue number23
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 7 2021

Keywords

  • biospecimens
  • exposure misclassification
  • pooling
  • reproducibility
  • sample type

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry

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