Vaginal transmission of SIV: Assessing infectivity and hormonal influences in macaques inoculated with cell-free and cell-associated viral stocks

D. L. Sodora, A. Gettie, Chris J Miller, P. A. Marx

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Abstract

Cell associated and cell-free simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) were used to investigate transmission of SIV across the vaginal mucosa of rhesus macaques. The intact vaginal epithelium was found to be a strong but penetrable barrier to cell-free SIV infection. We found that 10,000-fold more cell-free SIV was needed to infect 100% of the macaques by the vaginal route when compared to the dose needed to infect 100% by the intravenous (IV) route. Like cell-free SIV, cell-associated SIV was an efficient means of transmission if given by the IV route; as few as 2 SIV-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were infectious inoculum. However, macaques were resistant to cell-associated SIV when exposed by the vaginal route; 10,000 SIV-infected PBMC failed to infect vaginally inoculated macaques. It was also found that vaginal transmission of cell-free SIV to macaques increased during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle compared to the follicular phase. Results with this animal model predict that cell-free human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is likely to be the more efficient mode of HIV vaginal transmission and that susceptibility may vary during the menstrual cycle.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Volume14
Issue numberSUPPL. 1
StatePublished - 1998
Externally publishedYes

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Simian Immunodeficiency Virus
Macaca
Satellite Viruses
Blood Cells
HIV
Follicular Phase
Luteal Phase
Virus Diseases
Menstrual Cycle
Macaca mulatta
Mucous Membrane
Epithelium
Animal Models

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Virology

Cite this

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title = "Vaginal transmission of SIV: Assessing infectivity and hormonal influences in macaques inoculated with cell-free and cell-associated viral stocks",
abstract = "Cell associated and cell-free simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) were used to investigate transmission of SIV across the vaginal mucosa of rhesus macaques. The intact vaginal epithelium was found to be a strong but penetrable barrier to cell-free SIV infection. We found that 10,000-fold more cell-free SIV was needed to infect 100{\%} of the macaques by the vaginal route when compared to the dose needed to infect 100{\%} by the intravenous (IV) route. Like cell-free SIV, cell-associated SIV was an efficient means of transmission if given by the IV route; as few as 2 SIV-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were infectious inoculum. However, macaques were resistant to cell-associated SIV when exposed by the vaginal route; 10,000 SIV-infected PBMC failed to infect vaginally inoculated macaques. It was also found that vaginal transmission of cell-free SIV to macaques increased during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle compared to the follicular phase. Results with this animal model predict that cell-free human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is likely to be the more efficient mode of HIV vaginal transmission and that susceptibility may vary during the menstrual cycle.",
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year = "1998",
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T2 - Assessing infectivity and hormonal influences in macaques inoculated with cell-free and cell-associated viral stocks

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AU - Gettie, A.

AU - Miller, Chris J

AU - Marx, P. A.

PY - 1998

Y1 - 1998

N2 - Cell associated and cell-free simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) were used to investigate transmission of SIV across the vaginal mucosa of rhesus macaques. The intact vaginal epithelium was found to be a strong but penetrable barrier to cell-free SIV infection. We found that 10,000-fold more cell-free SIV was needed to infect 100% of the macaques by the vaginal route when compared to the dose needed to infect 100% by the intravenous (IV) route. Like cell-free SIV, cell-associated SIV was an efficient means of transmission if given by the IV route; as few as 2 SIV-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were infectious inoculum. However, macaques were resistant to cell-associated SIV when exposed by the vaginal route; 10,000 SIV-infected PBMC failed to infect vaginally inoculated macaques. It was also found that vaginal transmission of cell-free SIV to macaques increased during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle compared to the follicular phase. Results with this animal model predict that cell-free human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is likely to be the more efficient mode of HIV vaginal transmission and that susceptibility may vary during the menstrual cycle.

AB - Cell associated and cell-free simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) were used to investigate transmission of SIV across the vaginal mucosa of rhesus macaques. The intact vaginal epithelium was found to be a strong but penetrable barrier to cell-free SIV infection. We found that 10,000-fold more cell-free SIV was needed to infect 100% of the macaques by the vaginal route when compared to the dose needed to infect 100% by the intravenous (IV) route. Like cell-free SIV, cell-associated SIV was an efficient means of transmission if given by the IV route; as few as 2 SIV-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were infectious inoculum. However, macaques were resistant to cell-associated SIV when exposed by the vaginal route; 10,000 SIV-infected PBMC failed to infect vaginally inoculated macaques. It was also found that vaginal transmission of cell-free SIV to macaques increased during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle compared to the follicular phase. Results with this animal model predict that cell-free human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is likely to be the more efficient mode of HIV vaginal transmission and that susceptibility may vary during the menstrual cycle.

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