Objective:Availability of medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) remains sparse. To date, there has been no national, state-by-state comparison of patient MOUD utilization relative to treatment availability and burden of overdose deaths. We aimed to quantify, for each state, the number of MOUD patients relative to (1) office-based buprenorphine providers and opioid treatment programs (OTPs) and (2) overdose deaths.Methods:We conducted a spatial analysis of patients receiving MOUD from OTPs or buprenorphine providers in March 2017 across all 50 states and Washington, DC. For each state, we calculated the number of patients receiving MOUD from OTPs and buprenorphine prescriptions, relative to available OTPs and buprenorphine providers; as well as ratios of number of patients receiving MOUD relative to overdose deaths.Results:In March 2017, 942,368 patients attended an OTP (410,288) or received a buprenorphine prescription (486,318). Patient to OTP ratio was highest in West Virginia, Delaware, Washington, DC, New Jersey, New Hampshire, Connecticut and Ohio, ranging from 91 to 193 patients per OTP in the first quintile to 430 to 648 in the fifth. Patient to buprenorphine provider ratio was highest in Kentucky and West Virginia, ranging from 3 to 7 patients per provider in the first quintile to 19 to 28 in the fifth. Median MOUD patients per overdose death was 21 (IQR:14.9-28.2). Of high overdose states, Washington, DC, New Jersey, and Ohio had the smallest number of patients on MOUD relative to deaths.Conclusions:High patient volume relative to treatment availability in overdose-burdened areas may indicate strain on MOUD providers and OTPs. Promoting greater utilization while expanding MOUD providers and programs is critical.
- medications for opioid use disorder
- opioid treatment programs
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Psychiatry and Mental health
- Pharmacology (medical)