OBJECTIVE. The purposes of this study were to determine whether patients with asymptomatic microscopic hematuria undergoing CT urography (CTU) meet the American Urological Association criteria for radiologic evaluation and to determine the yield of CTU for upper tract malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A retrospective review was conducted of consecutive CTU examinations performed for asymptomatic microscopic hematuria in adult patients. Patients with clinical evidence suggestive of a benign cause of hematuria (stone, urinary tract infection, trauma) or prior urologic malignancy were excluded. The study group included 419 patients (173 men, 246 women). CT reports were reviewed to identify causes of hematuria in all cases. Evaluate for appropriateness was conducted with 200 randomly allocated patients. Urinalysis results were reviewed, and appropriate use of CTU was defined as more than 3 RBCs per high-power field in the absence of urinary tract infection. Cystoscopy results after CTU were noted. RESULTS. In total, 58 of 200 patients (29.0%; 95% CI, 23.2-35.6%) did not meet American Urological Association criteria for radiologic evaluation. Fifteen (7.5%) received dipstick analysis only. Thirty-eight (19.0%) had urinalysis results showing 0-2 RBCs per high-power field. Five patients (2.5%) were found to have urinary tract infections. No upper tract urothelial neoplasms were identified (0/419; 95% CI, 0.0-0.9%). One solid renal mass was identified without pathologic confirmation. One possible bladder mass was seen at CTU but not visualized at subsequent cystoscopy. CONCLUSION. In 29.0% of examinations, CTU is performed for patients who do not meet the criteria for radiologic evaluation. The yield of CTU for upper urinary tract malignancy is low.
- CT urography
- Transitional cell carcinoma
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging