Use of intraoperative computed tomography for maxillofacial reconstructive surgery

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41 Scopus citations


IMPORTANCE: Intraoperative computed tomography (CT) provides surgeons with real-time feedback during maxillofacial trauma and reconstructive surgery, which can affect intraoperative decision making. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the time needed to perform intraoperative CT scans during maxillofacial surgery, determine any trend toward shorter total scan times as experience is gained with the technique, and identify the characteristics of cases that required intraoperative revision based on the results of intraoperative CT scanning. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective reviewwas completed for all maxillofacial reconstruction procedures that used intraoperative CT between January 1, 2012, and March 31, 2014. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were cared for by the routine practice pattern of the authors. Intraoperative CT scans were obtained for all patients. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Time needed for intraoperative CT scanwas measured and trends were analyzed. Covariates included age, sex, complexity of fracture, procedure type, total scan time, surgeon, and need for intraoperative revision based on intraoperative CT findings. RESULTS: Thirty-eight cases were identified, including 30 males (79%) and 8 females (21%). The mean (SE) age was 37.4 (16.0) years (range, 7-75 years). Cases were defined as routine (18 [47%]) or complex (20 [53%]). Isolated orbital fractures were the most common fracture (23 [61%]) in both the routine (14 [78%]) and complex (9 [45%]) cases. The mean (SE) total scan time was 14.5 (4.9) minutes (range, 6-27 minutes) and did not differ based on complexity (P = .34). Intraoperative revisions were performed in 9 patients (24%) and were more common in complex (n = 8) than routine (n = 1) cases (P = .004). There was no reduction in total scan time during the study period (P = .22). The mean (SE) scan time for the most experienced surgeon was 3.78 (1.53) minutes shorter than for the other surgeons as a group (P = .02). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Current intraoperative CT scanning techniques are rapid, averaging 14.5 minutes per case. No decrease in total scan time was noted during the study; however, the surgeon most experienced with the CT software had the shortest total scan times. Intraoperative revisions were most common in complex cases. We recommend surgeons consider the use of intraoperative CT imaging for maxillofacial reconstruction, particularly in complex procedures. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)113-119
Number of pages7
JournalJAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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