PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inhaled nitric oxide is established therapy for term infants with hypoxemic respiratory failure. Laboratory studies demonstrate that inhaled nitric oxide improves lung function and morphology in animal models of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, creating a rationale for clinical studies in premature infants. Four large multicenter randomized trials have now completed enrollment, and one trial has reported neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18-22 months. The purpose of this review is to summarize the results of the most recent preclinical studies and clinical trials. RECENT FINDINGS: In 2006, short-term outcomes from two large multicenter randomized trials were published. These studies differed in their target population and study design. Early use of inhaled nitric oxide was associated with a decrease in brain injury, and decreased chronic lung disease in infants over 1000 g. Inhaled nitric oxide use in older infants (7-21 days) was associated with decreased chronic lung disease, particularly if started early. SUMMARY: Neurodevelopmental outcomes after discharge are still needed from three large multicenter randomized trials. These results will help confirm the long-term implications of the benefits reported in the two most recent trials.
- Brain injury
- Bronchopulmonary dysplasia
- Chronic lung disease
- Intraventricular hemorrhage
- Respiratory distress syndrome
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health