Use of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer as a liquid embolic agent to treat a peripheral arteriovenous malformation in a dog

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Case Description-An 11-year-old castrated male Tibetan Mastiff was evaluated because of a visibly enlarged blood vessel and progressively worsening swelling of the right hind limb. Clinical Findings-On physical examination, the right hind limb was markedly larger than the left hind limb and the dog was minimally weight bearing on the affected limb. A bruit was auscultated over the affected region. Ultrasonography of the tarsal region of the right hind limb revealed an artery with turbulent flow that communicated with venous drainage. A CT scan confirmed the presence of an arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Treatment and Outcome-Embolization of the AVM with a liquid embolic agent (ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide) was elected. An arteriogram was performed prior to treatment and delineated the vessels that were targeted for embolization. The embolic agent was infused into the AVM, and a postinjection arteriogram confirmed complete occlusion of the AVM nidus and normal arterial flow to the paw with subsequent normal venous drainage. The circumference of the abnormal paw was 51 cm before the procedure and 22.9 cm at 4 weeks after the procedure. Additionally, the gait of the dog dramatically improved. No complications associated with the procedure developed. Clinical Relevance-Peripheral AVMs in dogs are uncommon, and described treatment options are limited and generally associated with serious morbidity. A liquid embolic agent, ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, was successfully administered in this case, and no morbidity was observed secondary to the procedure. Clinical success was characterized by substantial improvement in limb swelling and marked improvement in the gait of the dog.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)216-221
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jul 15 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)
  • Medicine(all)


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