As presented previously in Part 1 of this 2-part article, many long-term clinical trials provide overwhelming evidence of the benefits of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) across the cardiovascular continuum. Trials also indicate additive or synergistic effects of combination therapy in renal disease and heart failure. Part 2, which is presented here, discusses the extensive interaction of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) with the cellular and molecular pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease and the cross-continuum effects of ARBs and ACE inhibitors, which raises the possibility that RAS inhibition can offer protection in high-risk patients who do not have symptoms. Although trial evidence supports the effectiveness of monotherapy, the benefits of combined ACE inhibitor/ARB therapy in high-risk patients await confirmation. Ongoing clinical research will provide new and important information regarding the efficacy of specific combination (ACE inhibitor/ARB) therapies.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health