Urine matrix metalloproteinase-7 and risk of kidney disease progression and mortality in type 2 diabetes

Maryam Afkarian, Leila R. Zelnick, John Ruzinski, Bryan Kestenbaum, Jonathan Himmelfarb, Ian H. De Boer, Rajnish Mehrotra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Aims The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and WNT pathways are dysregulated in diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Urine excretion of angiotensinogen, gremlin-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7), components of the RAAS, BMP and WNT pathways, respectively, is increased in DKD. We asked if this increase is associated with subsequent progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or death. Methods Using time-to-event analyses, we examined the association of baseline urine concentration of these proteins with progression to ESRD or death in a predominantly Mexican-American cohort with type 2 diabetes and proteinuric DKD (n = 141). Results Progression to ESRD occurred for 38 participants over a median follow-up of 3.0 years; 39 participants died over a median follow-up of 3.6 years. Urine MMP-7 and gremlin-1 were associated with increased risk of ESRD after adjustment for demographic and clinical covariates. Angiotensinogen showed a U-shaped relationship with ESRD, with the middle tertile associated with lowest risk of ESRD. After additional adjustment for glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria, all associations with ESRD lost significance. Only urine MMP-7 was associated with mortality, and this association remained robust in the fully adjusted model with a Hazard ratio of 3.59 (95% confidence interval 1.31 to 9.85) for highest vs. lowest tertile. Serum MMP-7 was not associated with mortality and did not attenuate the association of urine MMP-7 with mortality (HR 4.03 for highest vs. lowest urine MMP-7 tertile). Conclusions Among people with type 2 diabetes and proteinuric DKD, urine MMP-7 concentration was strongly associated with subsequent mortality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1024-1031
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Diabetes and its Complications
Issue number8
StatePublished - Nov 1 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Angiotensinogen
  • Diabetic kidney disease
  • Gremlin-1
  • MMP-7
  • Mortality
  • Type 2 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology


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