Urinary incontinence is a common presenting clinical sign in dogs but occurs with less frequency in cats. A methodical approach to diagnosis and treatment is required as often multiple conditions can coexist in the same patient. In most cases, a combination of careful clinical history, physical examination, laboratory testing, and imaging is required. Treatment of urinary incontinence is frustrating, with some common disease processes, such as urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI) and ectopic ureter, being associated with relatively high treatment failure rates after both medical and surgical management. The urethral sphincter provides the primary mechanism for retention of continence by providing resistance to outflow during the storage phase of micturition. Ectopic ureter develops because of a defect in the embryologic development of the metanephric duct, which becomes the ureter later in development. A multitude of imaging modalities has been used for the investigation of urinary incontinence in dogs.
- Ectopic ureter
- Imaging modalities
- Urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI)
- Urinary incontinence
ASJC Scopus subject areas