Urban and agricultural pesticide inputs to a critical habitat for the threatened delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus)

Donald P. Weston, Aundrea M. Asbell, Sarah A. Lesmeister, Swee J Teh, Michael J. Lydy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Cache Slough complex is an area of tidal sloughs in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta of California (USA), and is surrounding by irrigated agricultural lands. Among the species of concern in the area is the delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus), a federally listed threatened species. Releases of the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos and pyrethroid insecticides were examined to determine whether they represented a threat to the copepods on which delta smelt feed (Eurytemora affinis and Pseudodiaptomus forbesi) and to aquatic life in general, represented by the standard testing organism, Hyalella azteca. There was a single incident of toxicity to H. azteca as a result of discharge of agricultural irrigation water containing chlorpyrifos. Pyrethroids were not found in samples collected during the dry season. Following rain events, however, the waters of western Cache Slough repeatedly became toxic to H. azteca because of the pyrethroids bifenthrin and cyhalothrin. The 96-h median lethal concentrations (LC50s) for E. affinis and P. forbesi for the pyrethroids bifenthrin and cyhalothrin were 16.7ng/L to 19.4ng/L when tested at 20°C. However, their LC50s may be 5mg/L to 10ng/L at in situ temperatures of the Cache Slough, comparable to the peak bifenthrin concentration observed. The dominant pyrethroid source appeared to be urban runoff entering a creek 21km upstream of Cache Slough. Pyrethroids of urban origin were supplemented by agricultural inputs of pyrethroids and chlorpyrifos as the creek flowed toward Cache Slough. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:920-929.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)920-929
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Volume33
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014

Fingerprint

Osmeriformes
Pyrethrins
pyrethroid
Pesticides
Ecosystem
pesticide
bifenthrin
Chlorpyrifos
habitat
chlorpyrifos
Insecticides
insecticide
Agricultural Irrigation
Copepoda
Endangered Species
Rain
Organophosphates
Water
Poisons
organophosphate

Keywords

  • Bifenthrin
  • Delta smelt
  • Hyalella azteca
  • Pyrethroids
  • Urban runoff

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Environmental Chemistry

Cite this

Urban and agricultural pesticide inputs to a critical habitat for the threatened delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus). / Weston, Donald P.; Asbell, Aundrea M.; Lesmeister, Sarah A.; Teh, Swee J; Lydy, Michael J.

In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 33, No. 4, 2014, p. 920-929.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Weston, Donald P. ; Asbell, Aundrea M. ; Lesmeister, Sarah A. ; Teh, Swee J ; Lydy, Michael J. / Urban and agricultural pesticide inputs to a critical habitat for the threatened delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus). In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 2014 ; Vol. 33, No. 4. pp. 920-929.
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