Ultraviolet irradiation inactivates the waterborne infective stages of Myxobolus cerebralis

A treatment for hatchery water supplies

Ronald Hedrick, T. S. McDowell, G. D. Marty, K. Mukkatira, Dolores Baxa, K. B. Andree, Z. Bukhari, T. Clancy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The effects of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the viability of the waterborne triactinomyxon stages of Myxobolus cerebralis were evaluated by vital staining and the infectivity for juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. A dose of 1300 mWs cm-2 was required to inactivate 100% of the triactinomyxons held under a static collimated beam of UV as determined by vital staining. Juvenile rainbow trout were protected from infections with M. cerebralis when exposed to 14 000 or 1400 triactinomyxon spores per fish that had been treated with the collimating beam apparatus (1300 mWs cm-2). Among all fish receiving UV-treated triactinomyxons, none had clinical signs of whirling disease, or evidence of microscopic lesions or spores of M. cerebralis after 5 mo at water temperatures of 15°C. In contrast, 100% of the fish receiving the higher dose of untreated triactinomyxons developed clinical signs of whirling disease and both microscopic signs of infection and spores were detected in all of the high and low dose trout receiving untreated triactinomyxon exposures. Two additional trials evaluated the Cryptosporidium Inactivation Device (CID) for its ability to treat flow-through 15°C well water to which triactinomyxons were added over a 2 wk period. CID treatments of a cumulative dose exceeding 64 000 triactinomyxons per fish protected juvenile rainbow from infections with M. cerebralis. Rainbow trout controls receiving the same number of untreated triactinomyxons developed both microscopic lesions and cranial spore concentrations up to 104.6 per 1/2 head, although no signs of clinical whirling disease were observed. UV (126 mWs cm-2, collimated beam apparatus) was also effective in killing Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the agent causing salmonid bacterial coldwater disease, as demonstrated by the inability of bacterial cells to grow on artificial media following UV treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)53-59
Number of pages7
JournalDiseases of Aquatic Organisms
Volume42
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 10 2000

Fingerprint

Myxobolus cerebralis
whirling disease
hatchery
hatcheries
water supply
rainbow
spore
Oncorhynchus mykiss
irradiation
spores
Cryptosporidium
fish
dosage
lesion
lesions (animal)
inactivation
infection
Flavobacterium psychrophilum
bacterial disease
infectivity

Keywords

  • Disease control
  • Flavobacterium psychrophilum
  • Ultraviolet
  • Whirling disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Aquatic Science

Cite this

Ultraviolet irradiation inactivates the waterborne infective stages of Myxobolus cerebralis : A treatment for hatchery water supplies. / Hedrick, Ronald; McDowell, T. S.; Marty, G. D.; Mukkatira, K.; Baxa, Dolores; Andree, K. B.; Bukhari, Z.; Clancy, T.

In: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, Vol. 42, No. 1, 10.08.2000, p. 53-59.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hedrick, Ronald ; McDowell, T. S. ; Marty, G. D. ; Mukkatira, K. ; Baxa, Dolores ; Andree, K. B. ; Bukhari, Z. ; Clancy, T. / Ultraviolet irradiation inactivates the waterborne infective stages of Myxobolus cerebralis : A treatment for hatchery water supplies. In: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 2000 ; Vol. 42, No. 1. pp. 53-59.
@article{f7f503f93d064dec917160a22fbc3121,
title = "Ultraviolet irradiation inactivates the waterborne infective stages of Myxobolus cerebralis: A treatment for hatchery water supplies",
abstract = "The effects of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the viability of the waterborne triactinomyxon stages of Myxobolus cerebralis were evaluated by vital staining and the infectivity for juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. A dose of 1300 mWs cm-2 was required to inactivate 100{\%} of the triactinomyxons held under a static collimated beam of UV as determined by vital staining. Juvenile rainbow trout were protected from infections with M. cerebralis when exposed to 14 000 or 1400 triactinomyxon spores per fish that had been treated with the collimating beam apparatus (1300 mWs cm-2). Among all fish receiving UV-treated triactinomyxons, none had clinical signs of whirling disease, or evidence of microscopic lesions or spores of M. cerebralis after 5 mo at water temperatures of 15°C. In contrast, 100{\%} of the fish receiving the higher dose of untreated triactinomyxons developed clinical signs of whirling disease and both microscopic signs of infection and spores were detected in all of the high and low dose trout receiving untreated triactinomyxon exposures. Two additional trials evaluated the Cryptosporidium Inactivation Device (CID) for its ability to treat flow-through 15°C well water to which triactinomyxons were added over a 2 wk period. CID treatments of a cumulative dose exceeding 64 000 triactinomyxons per fish protected juvenile rainbow from infections with M. cerebralis. Rainbow trout controls receiving the same number of untreated triactinomyxons developed both microscopic lesions and cranial spore concentrations up to 104.6 per 1/2 head, although no signs of clinical whirling disease were observed. UV (126 mWs cm-2, collimated beam apparatus) was also effective in killing Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the agent causing salmonid bacterial coldwater disease, as demonstrated by the inability of bacterial cells to grow on artificial media following UV treatment.",
keywords = "Disease control, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Ultraviolet, Whirling disease",
author = "Ronald Hedrick and McDowell, {T. S.} and Marty, {G. D.} and K. Mukkatira and Dolores Baxa and Andree, {K. B.} and Z. Bukhari and T. Clancy",
year = "2000",
month = "8",
day = "10",
doi = "10.3354/dao042053",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "42",
pages = "53--59",
journal = "Diseases of Aquatic Organisms",
issn = "0177-5103",
publisher = "Inter-Research",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Ultraviolet irradiation inactivates the waterborne infective stages of Myxobolus cerebralis

T2 - A treatment for hatchery water supplies

AU - Hedrick, Ronald

AU - McDowell, T. S.

AU - Marty, G. D.

AU - Mukkatira, K.

AU - Baxa, Dolores

AU - Andree, K. B.

AU - Bukhari, Z.

AU - Clancy, T.

PY - 2000/8/10

Y1 - 2000/8/10

N2 - The effects of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the viability of the waterborne triactinomyxon stages of Myxobolus cerebralis were evaluated by vital staining and the infectivity for juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. A dose of 1300 mWs cm-2 was required to inactivate 100% of the triactinomyxons held under a static collimated beam of UV as determined by vital staining. Juvenile rainbow trout were protected from infections with M. cerebralis when exposed to 14 000 or 1400 triactinomyxon spores per fish that had been treated with the collimating beam apparatus (1300 mWs cm-2). Among all fish receiving UV-treated triactinomyxons, none had clinical signs of whirling disease, or evidence of microscopic lesions or spores of M. cerebralis after 5 mo at water temperatures of 15°C. In contrast, 100% of the fish receiving the higher dose of untreated triactinomyxons developed clinical signs of whirling disease and both microscopic signs of infection and spores were detected in all of the high and low dose trout receiving untreated triactinomyxon exposures. Two additional trials evaluated the Cryptosporidium Inactivation Device (CID) for its ability to treat flow-through 15°C well water to which triactinomyxons were added over a 2 wk period. CID treatments of a cumulative dose exceeding 64 000 triactinomyxons per fish protected juvenile rainbow from infections with M. cerebralis. Rainbow trout controls receiving the same number of untreated triactinomyxons developed both microscopic lesions and cranial spore concentrations up to 104.6 per 1/2 head, although no signs of clinical whirling disease were observed. UV (126 mWs cm-2, collimated beam apparatus) was also effective in killing Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the agent causing salmonid bacterial coldwater disease, as demonstrated by the inability of bacterial cells to grow on artificial media following UV treatment.

AB - The effects of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the viability of the waterborne triactinomyxon stages of Myxobolus cerebralis were evaluated by vital staining and the infectivity for juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. A dose of 1300 mWs cm-2 was required to inactivate 100% of the triactinomyxons held under a static collimated beam of UV as determined by vital staining. Juvenile rainbow trout were protected from infections with M. cerebralis when exposed to 14 000 or 1400 triactinomyxon spores per fish that had been treated with the collimating beam apparatus (1300 mWs cm-2). Among all fish receiving UV-treated triactinomyxons, none had clinical signs of whirling disease, or evidence of microscopic lesions or spores of M. cerebralis after 5 mo at water temperatures of 15°C. In contrast, 100% of the fish receiving the higher dose of untreated triactinomyxons developed clinical signs of whirling disease and both microscopic signs of infection and spores were detected in all of the high and low dose trout receiving untreated triactinomyxon exposures. Two additional trials evaluated the Cryptosporidium Inactivation Device (CID) for its ability to treat flow-through 15°C well water to which triactinomyxons were added over a 2 wk period. CID treatments of a cumulative dose exceeding 64 000 triactinomyxons per fish protected juvenile rainbow from infections with M. cerebralis. Rainbow trout controls receiving the same number of untreated triactinomyxons developed both microscopic lesions and cranial spore concentrations up to 104.6 per 1/2 head, although no signs of clinical whirling disease were observed. UV (126 mWs cm-2, collimated beam apparatus) was also effective in killing Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the agent causing salmonid bacterial coldwater disease, as demonstrated by the inability of bacterial cells to grow on artificial media following UV treatment.

KW - Disease control

KW - Flavobacterium psychrophilum

KW - Ultraviolet

KW - Whirling disease

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0034632692&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0034632692&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3354/dao042053

DO - 10.3354/dao042053

M3 - Article

VL - 42

SP - 53

EP - 59

JO - Diseases of Aquatic Organisms

JF - Diseases of Aquatic Organisms

SN - 0177-5103

IS - 1

ER -