Studies with the mouse have shown that lung hemorrhage can result from exposure to ultrasound at a peak pressure of ∼1 MPa at 4 MHz (Mechanical Index [MI] ∼0.5). In order to determine whether a comparable outcome could occur in a larger animal with characteristics similar to humans, studies were performed with monkeys using a clinical scanner under maximum output conditions (imaging + pulsed and color Doppler; derated pr of 3.7 MPa [4.5 MPa, measured in water], 4 MHz; MI ∼ 1.8) (N = 57). Monkeys ranged in age from 1 day of life to 16 years with exposures limited to the right lung lobes (5 min cranial, 5 min caudal; N = 41 exposed, N = 12 sham-exposed controls, N = 4 colony controls). Results showed that animals ranging in age from 3 months to 5 years (mean age of 2.5 years) had a greater propensity for the occurrence of multiple well-demarcated circular hemorrhagic foci (0.1-1.0 cm), which were not observed in either control group. These lesions were characterized by marked congestion of alveolar capillaries with accumulation of red blood cells within the alveolar spaces, and were unassociated with major vessels or respiratory bronchioles. Further studies will be required in order to determine the relevance of these findings to the human, although it was concluded that ultrasound-induced lung hemorrhage in the monkey is of a significantly lesser degree when compared to the mouse.
- Bubble activity
- M. Fascicularis
- M. radiata
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging