Ultrasonographic patterns, clinical findings, and prognostic variables in dogs from Asia with gallbladder mucocele

Jared A. Jaffey, Rachael Kreisler, Kate Shumway, Yan Jane Lee, Chung Hui Lin, Lawren L. Durocher-Babek, Kyoung Won Seo, Hojung Choi, Ko Nakashima, Hiromi Harada, Hideyuki Kanemoto, Lee Shuan Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Gallbladder mucocele (GBM) is a common biliary disorder in dogs that can be categorized into 6 types, but the value of this classification scheme remains unknown. Cholecystectomy is associated with high death rates and warrants additional interrogation. Objectives: Investigate the clinical value of ultrasonographic diagnosis of type of GBM and identify prognostic factors in dogs with GBM undergoing cholecystectomy. Animals: Two hundred sixteen dogs. Methods: Retrospective cohort study. Dogs with GBM diagnosed from 2014 to 2019 at 6 veterinary referral hospitals in Asia. Ultrasonogram images were reviewed and a GBM type (ie, types I-VI) assigned. Results: Dogs with GBM type V as compared to I (OR, 8.6; 95% CI, 2.6-27.8; P <.001) and III (OR, 10.0; 95% CI, 2.5-40.8; P =.001), and dogs with type VI compared to I (OR, 10.5; 95% CI, 1.8-61.2; P =.009) and III (OR, 12.3; 95% CI, 1.8-83.9; P =.01) were more likely to exhibit signs of biliary tract disease. Independent predictors of death after cholecystectomy included age (OR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.41-5.59; P =.003) and intraoperative systolic blood pressure (SBP) nadir. There was an interaction between SBP nadir and gallbladder rupture; SBP nadir in dogs with (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.89-0.94; P <.001) and without (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.82-0.93; P <.001) gallbladder rupture. Conclusion and Clinical Importance: Increasing developmental stage of GBM could be associated with an increased likelihood of biliary tract related clinical signs. Nadir SBP deserves further investigation as a prognostic or potentially modifiable variable, particularly in the presence of gallbladder rupture.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
StateAccepted/In press - 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • biliary
  • blood pressure
  • canine
  • cholecystectomy
  • hypotension
  • survival

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)


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