Ultrahigh-resolution soft x-ray tomography

Waleed S. Haddad, James E. Trebes, Dennis M. Goodman, Heung Rae Lee, Ian McNulty, Erik H. Anderson, Andrei O. Zalensky

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

6 Scopus citations


Ultra high resolution three-dimensional images of a microscopic test object were made with soft x rays using a scanning transmission x-ray microscope. The test object consisted of two different patterns of gold bars on silicon nitride windows that were separated by approximately 5 micrometer. A series of nine 2-D images of the object were recorded at angles between -5 to +55 degrees with respect to the beam axis. The projections were then combined tomographically to form a 3-D image by means of an algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) algorithm. A transverse resolution of approximately 1000 angstrom was observed. Artifacts in the reconstruction limited the overall depth resolution to approximately 6000 angstrom, however some features were clearly reconstructed with a depth resolution of approximately 1000 angstrom. A specially modified ART algorithm and a constrained conjugate gradient (CCG) code were also developed as improvements over the standard ART algorithm. Both of these methods made significant improvements in the overall depth resolution, bringing it down to approximately 1200 angstrom overall. Preliminary projection data sets were also recorded with both dry and re-hydrated human sperm cells over a similar angular range.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
Number of pages6
StatePublished - 1995
Externally publishedYes
EventX-Ray Microbeam Technology and Applications - San Diego, CA, USA
Duration: Jul 11 1995Jul 12 1995


OtherX-Ray Microbeam Technology and Applications
CitySan Diego, CA, USA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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