Typhoid

Sean Paul Nuccio, Tamding Wangdi, Sebastian E. Winter, Andreas J Baumler

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Typhoid fever is a severe systemic infection caused by the human-adapted Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). Paratyphoid fever is indistinguishable from typhoid fever in its clinical presentation but is associated with other typhoidal Salmonella serovars, including the human-adapted S. enterica serovars Paratyphi A, Paratyphi B, Paratyphi C, or Sendai. Although eradicated in most developed countries, these illnesses continue to be a major contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide, and the emergence of antibiotic resistance is beginning to limit treatment options. Sanitation of drinking water is effective in reducing transmission of typhoid and paratyphoid fever, but eradication of these diseases also requires management of human carriers. Typhoidal Salmonella serovars are closely related genetically to nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars, which are associated with a localized gastroenteritis in humans. Recent studies suggest that differences in the clinical presentation of typhoid fever and gastroenteritis can be attributed to virulence mechanisms that enable typhoidal Salmonella serovars to evade innate immunity but that are absent from nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars. One such factor is the virulence capsular polysaccharide (Vi antigen) of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi C. Studies on immunity to typhoid fever have resulted in licensing of a killed whole-cell parenteral typhoid vaccine, a live-attenuated oral typhoid vaccine, and a parenteral vaccine consisting of purified Vi antigen. Our entry will review basic and applied research on this enigmatic human disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationThe Prokaryotes: Human Microbiology
PublisherSpringer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
Pages375-399
Number of pages25
ISBN (Print)9783642301445, 3642301436, 9783642301438
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2013

Fingerprint

Typhoid Fever
Salmonella
Paratyphoid Fever
Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines
Gastroenteritis
Salmonella paratyphi A
Disease Eradication
Antigens
Attenuated Vaccines
Salmonella typhi
Sanitation
Virulence Factors
Licensure
Microbial Drug Resistance
Developed Countries
Innate Immunity
Drinking Water
Polysaccharides
Virulence
Immunity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)

Cite this

Nuccio, S. P., Wangdi, T., Winter, S. E., & Baumler, A. J. (2013). Typhoid. In The Prokaryotes: Human Microbiology (pp. 375-399). Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-30144-5_105

Typhoid. / Nuccio, Sean Paul; Wangdi, Tamding; Winter, Sebastian E.; Baumler, Andreas J.

The Prokaryotes: Human Microbiology. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2013. p. 375-399.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Nuccio, SP, Wangdi, T, Winter, SE & Baumler, AJ 2013, Typhoid. in The Prokaryotes: Human Microbiology. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 375-399. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-30144-5_105
Nuccio SP, Wangdi T, Winter SE, Baumler AJ. Typhoid. In The Prokaryotes: Human Microbiology. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. 2013. p. 375-399 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-30144-5_105
Nuccio, Sean Paul ; Wangdi, Tamding ; Winter, Sebastian E. ; Baumler, Andreas J. / Typhoid. The Prokaryotes: Human Microbiology. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2013. pp. 375-399
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