Although the perirhinal cortex (PRC), parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC) have an essential role in memory, the precise functions of these areas are poorly understood. Here, we review the anatomical and functional characteristics of these areas based on studies in humans, monkeys and rats. Our Review suggests that the PRC and PHC-RSC are core components of two separate large-scale cortical networks that are dissociable by neuroanatomy, susceptibility to disease and function. These networks not only support different types of memory but also appear to support different aspects of cognition.
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