Twenty-five years of research using implicit measures

Bertram Gawronski, Jan De Houwer, Jeffrey W. Sherman

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


The year 2020 marks the 25th anniversary of two seminal publications that have set the foundation for an exponentially growing body of research using implicit measures: Fazio, Jackson, Dunton, and Williams's (1995) work using evaluative priming to measure racial attitudes, and Greenwald and Banaji's (1995) review of implicit social cognition research that served as the basis for the development of the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The current article provides an overview of (1) two conceptual roots that continue to shape interpretations of implicit measures; (2) conflicting interpretations of the term implicit; (3) different kinds of dissociations between implicit and explicit measures; (4) theoretical developments inspired by these dissociations; and (5) research that used implicit measures to address domain-specific and applied questions. We conclude with a discussion of challenges and open questions that remain to be addressed, offering guidance for the next generation of research using implicit measures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S1-S25
JournalSocial Cognition
StatePublished - Nov 2020


  • Dual-process theory
  • Implicit measures
  • Implicit social cognition
  • Mental representation
  • Science history

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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