Treatment strategies for pelvic inflammatory disease

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


Background: Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is one of the most common infections seen in nonpregnant reproductive-age women. It is a major public health problem associated with substantial medical complications (e.g., infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain) and healthcare costs. Prevention of these long-term sequelae requires treatment strategies that are based on the microbiologic etiology of acute PID. Objective: To determine appropriate antimicrobial regimens for the treatment of acute PID based on published literature. Methods: Clinical trials published since 2002 were assessed conducting a systematic search of the literature on the treatment of acute PID using PubMed (National Library of Congress). The search was limited to articles written in English and published from 1 January 2002 to 30 June 2008. Results: Acute PID is a polymicrobic infection caused by both sexually transmitted organisms (primarily Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis) and microorganisms found in the endogenous flora of the vagina and cervix. The latter include anaerobic bacteria and facultative bacteria, many of which are associated with bacterial vaginosis. Genital tract mycoplasmas, most importantly Mycoplasma genitalium, may also be implicated in the etiology of acute PID. Because of this polymicrobial nature, currently available evidence, as well as recommendations by the CDC, support the use of broad-spectrum regimens (oral or parenteral) that provide adequate coverage against these microorganisms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)823-837
Number of pages15
JournalExpert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Issue number5
StatePublished - Apr 2009


  • Acute salpingitis
  • Antimicrobial treatment
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
  • Subclinical PID

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Pharmacology


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