Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Contacts of HIV-infected Tuberculosis Patients

Anna C C Carvalho, Kathryn Deriemer, Zoelete B. Nunes, Marneili Martins, Mario Comelli, Alessandra Marinoni, Afrânio L. Kritski

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48 Scopus citations


We assessed the infectiousness of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive and HIV-seronegative individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in a prospective cohort study. We enrolled, evaluated, and followed 104 close contacts of HIV-seropositive pulmonary TB patients and 256 close contacts of HIV-seronegative pulmonary TB patients using a standardized questionnaire, symptom review, chest radiograph, HIV serology, and tuberculin skin testing (TST). Contacts were followed for ≥ 12 mo. TB infection at enrollment was 27% (28/104) among contacts of HIV-seropositive TB patients and 35% (90/256) among contacts of HIV-seronegative TB patients (odds ratio [OR] = 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.41 to 1.12; p = 0.130). TST conversion occurred in 21% (42/204) of subjects; 8% (5/63) of contacts of HIV-seropositive index cases and 26% (37/141) of contacts of HIV-seronegative index cases (OR = 0.24, 95% Cl 0.09 to 0.65; p = 0.003). TB was diagnosed in nine contacts; eight were contacts of HIV-seronegative index cases. HIV seropositivity in the index case was independently associated with a lower risk of TB infection among contacts, even among household contacts younger than 15 yr of age. Contacts of HIV-seropositive persons with pulmonary TB were less likely to have a positive TST response at 1 yr of follow-up than contacts of HIV-seronegative persons.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2166-2171
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 15 2002


  • Contacts
  • HIV infection
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine


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