Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3R) and ryanodine receptors (RyR) mediate the release of endoplasmic and sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) Ca2+ stores and regulate Ca2+ entry through voltage-dependent or ligand-gated channels of the plasma membrane. A prominent property of ER/SR Ca2+ channels is exquisite sensitivity to sulfhydryl-modifying reagents. A plausible role for sulfhydryl chemistry in physiologic regulation of Ca2+ release channels and the fidelity of Ca2+ release from ER/SR is lacking. This study reveals the existence of a transmembrane redox sensor within the RyR1 channel complex that confers tight regulation of channel activity in response to changes in transmembrane redox potential produced by cytoplasmic and luminal glutathione. A transporter selective for glutathione is co-localized with RyR1 within the SR membrane to maintain local redox potential gradients consistent with redox regulation of ER/SR Ca2+ release. Hyperreactive sulfhydryls previously shown to reside within the RyR1 complex (Liu, G., and Pessah, I. N. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 33028-33034) are an essential biochemical component of a transmembrane redox sensor. Transmembrane redox sensing may represent a fundamental mechanism by which ER/SR Ca2+ channels respond to localized changes in transmembrane glutathione redox potential produced by physiologic and pathophysiologic modulators of Ca2+ release from stores.
ASJC Scopus subject areas