Transient Loss of Protection Afforded by a Live Attenuated Non-typhoidal Salmonella Vaccine in Mice Co-infected with Malaria

Jason P. Mooney, Seung Joo Lee, Kristen L. Lokken, Minelva R. Nanton, Sean Paul Nuccio, Stephen J Mcsorley, Renee M Tsolis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In immunocompetent individuals, non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars (NTS) are associated with gastroenteritis, however, there is currently an epidemic of NTS bloodstream infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Plasmodium falciparum malaria is an important risk factor for invasive NTS bloodstream in African children. Here we investigated whether a live, attenuated Salmonella vaccine could be protective in mice, in the setting of concurrent malaria. Surprisingly, mice acutely infected with the nonlethal malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL exhibited a profound loss of protective immunity to NTS, but vaccine-mediated protection was restored after resolution of malaria. Absence of protective immunity during acute malaria correlated with maintenance of antibodies to NTS, but a marked reduction in effector capability of Salmonella-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells. Further, increased expression of the inhibitory molecule PD1 was identified on memory CD4 T cells induced by vaccination. Blockade of IL-10 restored protection against S. Typhimurium, without restoring CD4 T cell effector function. Simultaneous blockade of CTLA-4, LAG3, and PDL1 restored IFN-γ production by vaccine-induced memory CD4 T cells but was not sufficient to restore protection. Together, these data demonstrate that malaria parasite infection induces a temporary loss of an established adaptive immune response via multiple mechanisms, and suggest that in the setting of acute malaria, protection against NTS mediated by live vaccines may be interrupted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0004027
JournalPLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Volume9
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 14 2015

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Salmonella Vaccines
Salmonella
Malaria
T-Lymphocytes
Immunity
Vaccines
Plasmodium yoelii
Attenuated Vaccines
Parasitic Diseases
Falciparum Malaria
Africa South of the Sahara
Gastroenteritis
Adaptive Immunity
Interleukin-10
Serogroup
Parasites
Vaccination
Maintenance
Antibodies
Infection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)

Cite this

Transient Loss of Protection Afforded by a Live Attenuated Non-typhoidal Salmonella Vaccine in Mice Co-infected with Malaria. / Mooney, Jason P.; Lee, Seung Joo; Lokken, Kristen L.; Nanton, Minelva R.; Nuccio, Sean Paul; Mcsorley, Stephen J; Tsolis, Renee M.

In: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Vol. 9, No. 9, e0004027, 14.09.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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