Transforming growth factor-βs and related gene products in mosquito vectors of human malaria parasites: Signaling architecture for immunological crosstalk

Matthew J. Lieber, Shirley Luckhart

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Scopus citations

Abstract

The participation of a divergent mosquito transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and mammalian TGF-β1 in the Anopheles stephensi response to malaria parasite development [Infect. Genet. Evol. 1 (2001) 131-141; Infect. Immun. 71 (2003) 3000-3009] suggests that a network of Anopheles TGF-β ligands and signaling pathways figure prominently in immune defense of this important vector group. To provide a basis for identifying the roles of these proteins in Anopheles innate immunity, we identified six predicted TGF-β ligand-encoding genes in the Anopheles gambiae genome, including two expressed, diverged copies of 60A, the first evidence of ligand gene duplication outside of chordates. In addition to five predicted type I and II receptors, we identified three Smad genes in the A. gambiae genome that would be predicted to support both TGF-β/Activin- and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-like signaling. All three Smad genes are expressed in an immunocompetent A. stephensi cell line and in the A. stephensi midgut epithelium, confirming that a conserved signaling architecture is in place to support signaling by divergent exogenous and endogenous TGF-β superfamily proteins.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)965-977
Number of pages13
JournalMolecular Immunology
Volume41
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2004
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • A. stephensi 60A
  • ActAR
  • ActIIR
  • activin A receptor
  • activin Type II receptor
  • activin-like kinase 2 receptor
  • activin-like protein on 23B
  • Ag60A
  • ALK2R
  • ALP23B
  • Anopheles
  • Anopheles gambiae 60A
  • As60A
  • Babo
  • Baboon
  • Immunity
  • Malaria
  • Mosquito
  • Plasmodium
  • TGF-β

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Immunology

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