Transcription initiation from the dihydrofolate reductase promoter is positioned by HIP1 binding at the initiation site

Anna L. Means, Peggy J. Farnham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

155 Scopus citations


We have identified a sequence element that specifies the position of transcription initiation for the dihydrofolate reductase gene. Unlike the functionally analogous TATA box that directs RNA polymerase II to initiate transcription 30 nucleotides downstream, the positioning element of the dihydrofolate reductase promoter is located directly at the site of transcription initiation. By using DNase I footprint analysis, we have shown that a protein binds to this initiator element. Transcription initiated at the dihydrofolate reductase initiator element when 28 nucleotides were inserted between it and all other upstream sequences, or when it was placed on either side of the DNA helix, suggesting that there is no strict spatial requirement between the initiator and an upstream element. Although neither a single Sp1-binding site nor a single initiator element was sufficient for transcriptional activity, the combination of one Sp1-binding site and the dihydrofolate reductase initiator element cloned into a plasmid vector resulted in transcription starting at the initiator element. We have also shown that the simian virus 40 late major initiation site has striking sequence homology to the dihydrofolate reductase initiation site and that the same, or a similar, protein binds to both sites. Examination of the sequences at other RNA polymerase II initiation sites suggests that we have identified an element that is important in the transcription of other housekeeping genes. We have thus named the protein that binds to the initiator element HIP1 (Housekeeping Initiator Protein 1).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)653-661
Number of pages9
JournalMolecular and Cellular Biology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1990
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Cell Biology

Cite this