Trait Shyness in the Elderly: Evidence for an Association with Parkinson's Disease in Family Members and Biochemical Correlates

Iris R. Bell, Diane Amend, Alfred W. Kaszniak, Gary E. Schwartz, Julie M. Peterson, William A. Stini, Joshua W. Miller, Jacob Selhub

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Scopus citations


Neuroleptics remain the mainstay for the treatment of behavioral disturbance and psychotic symptoms in demented patients. The limited available data suggest that low-dose neuroleptics are significantly more efficacious than placebo, though the magnitude of the effect is moderate in most published studies. Demented patients are particularly prone to neuroleptic side effects, and individualized dose titration may be necessary to achieve the optimal trade-off between efficacy and side effects. Target behavioral symptoms and side effects, including effects on cognition and activities of daily life, should be identified and assessed serially during neuroleptic treatment. The choice of neuroleptic depends more on likely side effects than differential efficacy, and non-response or intolerable side effects should lead to dose adjustment or a switch to an alternative class of neuroleptic (or an alternative type of medication). Further studies of optimal neuroleptic dosage, the optimal duration of continuation neuroleptic treatment, and placebo-controlled studies comparing neuroleptics to other classes of medications are needed. (J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 1995; 8(suppl 1):S18-S27).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)18-27
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1995
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology

Cite this