The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii lives inside a vacuole in the host cytosol where it is protected from host cytoplasmic innate immune responses. However, IFNγ-dependent cell-autonomous immunity can destroy the vacuole and the parasite inside. Toxoplasma strain differences in susceptibility to human IFNγ exist, but the Toxoplasma effector(s) that determine these differences are unknown. We show that in human primary fibroblasts, the polymorphic Toxoplasma-secreted effector GRA15 mediates the recruitment of ubiquitin ligases, including TRAF2 and TRAF6, to the vacuole membrane, which enhances recruitment of ubiquitin receptors (p62/NDP52) and ubiquitin-like molecules (LC3B, GABARAP). This ultimately leads to lysosomal degradation of the vacuole. In murine fibroblasts, GRA15-mediated TRAF6 recruitment mediates the recruitment of immunity-related GTPases and destruction of the vacuole. Thus, we have identified how the Toxoplasma effector GRA15 affects cell-autonomous immunity in human and murine cells.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)