Synthetic membranes with pores at the subnanometre scale are at the core of processes for separating solutes from water, such as water purification and desalination. While these membrane processes have achieved substantial industrial success, the capability of state-of-the-art membranes to selectively separate a single solute from a mixture of solutes is limited. Such high-precision separation would enable fit-for-purpose treatment, improving the sustainability of current water-treatment processes and opening doors for new applications of membrane technologies. Herein, we introduce the challenges of state-of-the-art membranes with subnanometre pores to achieve high selectivity between solutes. We then analyse experimental and theoretical literature to discuss the molecular-level mechanisms that contribute to energy barriers for solute transport through subnanometre pores. We conclude by providing principles and guidelines for designing next-generation single-species selective membranes that are inspired by ion-selective biological channels.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Biomedical Engineering
- Materials Science(all)
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering